Tutor profile: Jessie P.
If a patient presents with hypothyroidism, what can be done to determine the cause of their deficit?
Hypothyroidism is a condition that causes there to be limited T3/T4 circulating in the body. This lack of hormones leads to lowered metabolism, symptoms such as hair loss and fatigue, and cognitive symptoms such as depression. T3/T4 comes from the thyroid gland, but its release is dependent on the release of TSH from the brain. Thus, the problem can result from the brain or the thyroid gland itself. To determine which is the problem, the levels of TSH can be assessed. If the levels of TSH are high, it means the brain is functioning fine and the thyroid gland is the issue. Conversely, if TSH is low, that could mean there is a problem in the brain leading to lack of stimulus to the thyroid gland.
Describe the importance of temperature and pH regulation in the context of enzyme function.
Enzymes allow reactions in living systems to happen at a speed that is efficient for the system. Without enzymes, many living systems' reactions would not be completed quickly enough for the system to stay alive. Enzymes require specific conditions in order to function, such as optimal temperature and pH. When these conditions are not met, the enzyme denatures and loses its ability to expedite reactions.
Describe the relationship between tendons, ligaments, and bones.
Bones are the structure of our body, and contribute to our ability to move. However, the ability of bones to create movement relies on their connection to muscles that contract and relax. Ligaments attach bone to bone, for example our humerus bone to our ulna and radius. In contrast, tendons attach muscles to bones, which means that when the muscle contracts it pulls the bone allowing it to move.
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