What are the connotations associated with the perfect tense when translating from Latin into English?
The perfect tense denotes an action that has been completed already. It can be translated in two different ways, depending upon the context. For example, the brief sentence, "pecuniam sustuli" could be translated simply as "I stole the money" - a simple account of a past action. The translation could also show an effect on the present state. That same sentence could be translated, "I have stolen the money". This begs the consequent, "therefore I am a thief." This is no simple recounting of an action done in the past. Rather, this speaks to the current state of the person or thing who did that action in the past. As the translator, you must remember that you are not simply translating the words, but also the context. Both versions above are correct, but the translator must decided which is appropriate.
What is the difference between simple and compound meter?
A simple meter is one wherein the beat can be divided into even numbered sub units. For example, 3/4 has three large beats per measure, each of which could be divided in half, or into four, or into eight, and so on. A compound meter, such as 9/8, shows a measure with nine beats. However, those nine beats are grouped in three groups of three. So, just like the 3/4 measure mentioned above, there are three large beats. The difference, is that in the three four measure, the beat can be divided in half, whereas, in the 9/8 measure the large beat is divided into three sub beats.
What was one effect of the English Reformation on the religious practices of the average person in England?
English residents had to evaluate their religious status, and how reluctant they were to hold onto that status. Some shifted from their prior beliefs, mostly Catholicism, to Anglicanism readily for fear of persecution. Others displayed acts of Anglican faith publicly, yet continued their true services in private either alone, or with other members of their community. Yet others fled from England to the European continent where they could settled in communities with similarly-affiliated people. There were also unique figures, like William Byrd during the reign of Elisabeth I, who were allowed publicly to claim a faith other than Anglicanism (Catholicism, in his case), because they were protected by the crown. Byrd was a gentleman of the Chapel Royal, an organist and composer, and Queen Elisabeth was so fond of his music, both for the keyboard and for choir to be used in the Anglican service, that he was protected from persecution.