Describe the difference between ser and estar.
Both "ser" and "estar" are verbs that mean "to be". Ser is used to refer to permanent things, like personality, nationality, and other identifiers. It is also used to describe possession and things that take place in time (i.e. dates, seasons, times, etc.) Estar is used for states of being, including emotional states, physical states, placement of objects, etc.
What does a Gram stain tell you about bacteria?
Gram staining is a test that can tell you about the cell wall structure of the bacteria in question. The part of the cell wall that is stained in Gram testing is called peptidoglycan, which is a polymer that is made out of amino acids and sugars and creates part of the cell wall's structure. Gram-positive organisms have on average between 60-90% of the cell wall made up by peptidoglycan, whereas Gram-negative organisms are about 10% (or even less).
What is the trigeminal nerve, and what does it do?
The trigeminal nerve is the fifth of the twelve cranial nerves. The primary function of the trigeminal nerve is to transmit signals of sensation from the face (specifically the mouth, nasal cavity, and teeth) to the brain. There are three different smaller nerves that make up the trigeminal nerve, which is how it got its name. The three nerves are the ophthalmic, the maxillary, and the mandibular. The other function of the trigeminal nerve is to control the muscles that help you chew.