Tutor profile: Michael C.
Explain the role of the audience in crafting one's writing.
When crafting a message, a writer must take into consideration the intended audience. All audiences benefit when a writer takes time to carefully craft a message for their unique benefit. For instance, though academic writing and work emails each have very different audiences, they both benefit when the writer speaks directly to their unique circumstances and culture. Writers may show such consideration when they assess whether the audience expects formal or informal delivery. In academic settings, the audience of a dissertation includes the writer's faculty chair, program directors, and other students. In such a case, writers are typically expected to use formal delivery, demonstrating their grasp of grammar and usually including citations according to the institution's standards. The audience expects to read the product of literary rigor. However, a group of coworkers would likely expect a completely different product when receiving an internal company email. Though email may be both formal and informal, it usually does not include citations, headings and subheadings, discipline-based jargon, a title page, a table of contents, or a biography. A company email may include a salutation, a short body, and an email signature with contact information. In all scenarios, a writer is wise to carefully consult the perceived expectations of the audience and write accordingly. Careful writing will produce the most palatable product for one's audience.
Subject: Religious Studies
Explain the debate between homiletic schools that adopt inductive teaching and those that adopt deductive teaching. How are their understandings of the nature of the Bible directly linked to their chosen methodology for communicating its principles?
One's understanding of the nature of the Bible has a direct impact on whether one might choose to teach from it inductively versus deductively. The debate concerning biblical inerrancy is the dividing line between the two schools of teaching. If teachers believe the Scriptures are inerrant, they will likely opt for a proposition-based, deductive approach to teaching. Deductive speech starts with a logical, accepted premise and uses evidence to support it. Therefore, deductive speech is useful to those who accept the Bible as inherently true since they are willing to accept its premises. On the other hand, if teachers believe the Scriptures to be errant (or if they believe such a claim cannot be substantiated or taken by faith) it is more likely they will opt for an inductive approach. Inductive speech starts with general observations and uses them to build a specific conclusion. Therefore, inductive speech is useful to those who question the Bible's inerrancy but desire to glean understanding from the Scriptures (specific conclusions) by piecing together general observations which hold merit.
What are elements of interpersonal communication at play when two people speak to one another?
Over the last seventy years, the field of communication theory has contributed a number of ways of seeing interpersonal communication. One such lens for understanding communication is summated in the theories of David K. Berlo who popularized the sender/message/channel/receiver theory. When speaking, a sender communicates a message through a channel to a receiver. Berlo's theories are particularly helpful because they acknowledge ideas like feedback (in which the sender and receiver respond to one another with either vocally or mechanically) and noise (distractions to the communication channel which may hinder the ability of both sender and receiver to communicate with clarity). Examples of feedback include vocal responses, facial expressions, and body language. Examples of noise include physically elemental distractions, stuttering or other vocal qualities of the sender or receiver, and limitations of the channel (e.g. a P.A. system that pops and hisses while a speaker speaks into a microphone). Berlo's simple model is helpful for understanding the not-so-simple process of interpersonal communication.