What is 81+39?
Explain how party polarization has strengthened party influence in Congress.
Party polarization is the concept in which the two main separate parties of government (Democrat and Republican) tend to stick much closer to their own ideologies versus having overlapping views. Democrats will appear to be more liberal than moderate and Republicans will appear to be more conservative than moderate to appeal to their constituents.
Describe the "bystander effect" phenomenon and why does it occur?
The bystander effect is a phenomenon in which the more people that witness a crime or accident, the less likely it is that any single person will take responsibility and call for help. For example, in the 1960s, Kitty Genovese was stabbed multiple times outside of her apartment and many witnesses saw the incident, yet no one called the police nor helped. Because the bystander effect was in play, she bled out and died. The reasoning is because of the greater the number of people, the more spread out the diffusion of responsibility that occurs. The thought process and assumption of "someone else will call the police" is to spread out to the point where, ultimately, no one takes responsibility, or when they do, it is too late.