Tutor profile: Kassandra J.
Subject: Public Health
How do wealth discrepancies impact health outcomes?
One way wealth impacts health outcomes is through the home; economics influences the foods and items people have in their households. If families have less money, they are less likely to spend money on more expensive fruits and vegetables and more likely to spend on cheaper, less healthy food options. Poorer communities also experience a more sedentary life style due to less access to a gym and other related fitness sources and more demanding work hours. This also explains why lower income households experience higher rates of obesity which can lead to greater risk of cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Lower socioeconomic status also means living under poor conditions such as cramped quarters with greater exposure to crime and environmental hazards and increased use of smoking and drug abuse. There is also a problem arising with access to medical care. Particularly in the United States, health insurance is predominantly linked to full-time employment, which makes it difficult for those working minimum wage jobs and contract positions, or those who are students or unemployed to access affordable health insurance options. This means that wealthier citizens and residents will be able to afford this care no matter the coverage or copay while poorer residents may not be able to receive this care especially if there is a high copay. Those in a lower income bracket may also choose not to access health services for common concerns like bacterial infections until they become an emergency and will thus be required to pay even more for access to health services than their wealthier counterparts, and this will continue to further exacerbate this issue. This issue becomes even more pronounced when looking at access to specialist care. These concepts are linked to the idea of "Second Sickness" which refers to the exacerbation of health outcomes due to social injustice. This means, for example, that an individual with high blood pressure in a lower socioeconomic status will likely have worse health outcomes than an individual with high blood pressure in a higher socioeconomic status despite having the same disease, thereby giving the individual in the lower SES a "second sickness."
How much heat needs to be added (in calories) to raise the temperature of 10 grams of water (H20) from 0°C to 50°C?
The amount of heat required is based upon two different aspects: 1) the amount of heat required to change water from its solid form to its liquid form (phase change) and 2) the amount of heat required to change the temperature from 0 to 50°C (temperature change). *Remember that the temperature change and phase change does not occur at the same time. Therefore: qtotal = q(phase change) + q(temperature change) q(phase change) = m * ΔH(phase change) q(temperature change) = m*c(specific heat)*ΔT qtotal = mΔH(melting) + mcΔT [ΔHmelting = 80 calories/gram, c = 1 cal/g-°C] - these values are dependent on substance and need to be looked up qtotal = [10g * (80 cal/g)] + [10g * 1 cal/g-°C * (50-0°C)] qtotal = 800 cal + 500 cal qtotal = 1300 calories Therefore, 1300 calories of heat would need to be added to 10 grams of water to raise its temperature from 0°C to 50°C.
How does the long term physical stress response differ from the short term?
The long term stress response is triggered by the release of cortisol, a glucocorticoid steroid, from the adrenal cortex. This is triggered by the release of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus which causes the anterior pituitary gland to release Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) which stimulates the adrenal cortex to release cortisol. This leads to increased blood sugar through fat and protein breakdown and decreases the immune system response and inflammation. The short term stress response is triggered by the activation of the Sympathetic Nervous System, otherwise known as the "fight-or-flight" response. This is characterized by the release of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla, as well as the release of norepinephrine. This leads to increased heart rate, increased blood flow, increased respiration, and dulled pain among other effects. This response is very fast and fleeting.
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