How can you determine whether a reaction is occurring by an SN1, SN2, E1, or E2 reaction will occur?
1. You must always account for steric hindrance. Tertiary molecules can always rule out the SN2 reaction. Also, primary and secondary haloalkanes can open up the possibility of an SN2 or E2 reaction. 2. Take a good look at the nucleophile and the leaving group. Good nucleophiles will typically result in SN2 and weaker nucleophiles will more likely result in an SN1 reaction. Apply your knowledge of nucleophiles to a molecules ability to be a good leaving group. 3. Temperature is another thing to consider. For example, hot temperatures favor elimination reactions while cold products favor substitution.
What is the significance of determining the limiting reagent in an industrial setting?
Determining a stoichiometric limiting reagent can be a struggle for college students, but the implications of determining this can play a huge role in the industry. If you find yourself in a lab job you may have to determine the absolute best reaction quantities to ensure you get the best percent yield while minimizing resources lost.
How does the complexity of an organism relate to the number of genes that it has?
An organisms complexity has to do with the regulation of genes at a genetic level and an epigenetic level. The actual number of genes an organism has does not mean that it will be any more or less complex than another. For example, a 1mm long C. elegans worm has almost the same number of protein-coding genes a human has, but humans are far more complex organisms.