Which study habits are the most and least effective?
Based on research in human memory, study habits that present as the least effective include rote rehearsal (repeating information over and over) and highlighting text. This is because memory becomes more effectively solidified when it is more deeply processed for a person. Rote rehearsal and highlighting are examples of shallow processing because there is no attempt to have a greater understanding or make a meaningful connection with the information. However, connecting information to be learned with previous life and learning experiences is highly effective as a study method because of the increased depth of processing. Also, flash cards and taking turns with friends quizzing each other are effective methods of studying due to a phenomenon called testing effects, in which the more a person is tested over the material, the stronger the person's memory traces for that material become.
Define positive and negative symptoms in terms of schizophrenia and provide examples of each.
Positive symptoms include symptoms that are present in the patient but should not be present. They can be seen as "added" behaviors to the person's overall personality. Examples include hallucinations (manifested abnormal sensory experiences), delusions (false beliefs), disorganized speech, and disorganized behavior. Negative symptoms include symptoms that are not present in the patient but should be present. They can be seen as behaviors that have been "taken away" from the person's overall personality. Examples include flat affect (lack of emotional response), weak social interactions, and limited speech and working memory.
What principles should be applied when analyzing a passage of text?
A topic sentence, or thesis, should come first, which outlines a basic observation about the passage. Background information and context for the passage should be provided in your explanation, however, avoid summarizing the passage entirely. Correctly formatted passage citations should be included throughout the passage analysis where appropriate. Finally, the body of the passage analysis paragraph should incorporate discussions about what happens in the passage, what is significant about what occurs in the passage, descriptions of imagery and themes are used to express main ideas, analysis of diction and word choice and how they contribute to the overall message.