Tutor profile: Wesley S.
Briefly, in your own words, describe Congestive Heart Failure (CHF).
Congestive Heart Failure, CHF, is a chronic condition in which the heart is unable to pump the required blood the body demands. This condition occurs when the heart muscle becomes weak from either a deficit or a medical condition. When the heart is unable to pump blood effectively, the blood fails to reach the kidneys in a timely fashion resulting in a buildup of fluid within the body, prominently in the legs (pedal edema) and in the lungs (pulmonary edema). Congestive Heart Failure typically occurs when patients have sustained hypertension, coronary artery disease, or a previous heart attack. Patients who have sustained hypertension cause stress on the heart by having the heart pump harder to keep up with the resistance in the body attributed to Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Patients retain a diagnosis of CAD when they have a chronic history of hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol/plaque) that begins to occlude the arteries within the body increasing the afterload pressure that the heart has to pump against. This increase in work can cause left-sided hypertrophy (enlarged heart muscle) which reduces the heart's cardiac output as the muscle increases in size resulting in a diagnosis of left side CHF. CAD can also lead to a heart attack when parts of the plaque break off in the bloodstream and occlude a vessel to the heart leaving the heart ischemic and eventually infarcted. This infarction leaves the heart weakened and unable to pump effectively resulting in CHF.
Subject: Gender Studies
Briefly define gender and how it integrates into a modern society.
Gender is a social construct derived from differentiating between the two biological sexes of males, those born with a penis, and females, those born with a vagina. While there are often cases of intersexed individuals, this research solely focuses on the differences between a biological male and female social members. While gender is based on biological sex in most societies, it remains an individual declaration as members may not identify with their given gender at birth and may later transition from one gender to the other, often known as transgender. Regardless of an individual’s personal gender declaration, society still maintains expectations and assignments different for males and females, particularly within the workplace.
Describe the flow of blood within the heart from start to finish including any landmarks.
Blood is brought in from the body through the Inferior and Superior Vena Cava into the Right Atrium. Upon Atrial contraction, blood is forcefully ejected through the Tricuspid Valve into the Right Ventricle. Upon Ventricular contraction, blood is forcefully ejected through the Pulmonary Valve into the Pulmonary Veins in order to be transported to the Lungs for oxygenation. Upon oxygenation, oxygenated blood is returned to the Left Atrium. Upon Atrial contraction, oxygenated blood is forcefully ejected from the Left Atrium through the Mitral Valve into the Left Ventricle. Upon Ventricular contraction, blood is then ejected completely from the heart (Left Ventricle) through the Aortic Valve, through the Aorta, and then to the rest of the body.
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