Pre-Algebra is the foundation for many maths following it, how will you make sure the student retain the knowledge you are teaching them so they continue to thrive through the rest of their math classes?
Again, making things personal is a key aspect of knowledge retention. Another thing that helps most students retain knowledge is making verbal memory cues, watching videos, or singing songs. Depending on what the student is interested in, we could do any of the above-listed strategies. I still remember how to do the order of operations (PEMDAS) because we had to come up with a personalized list using the letters and mine was Please Explain My Dog Acting Silly, so strategies like these will help the students in their future math classes as well.
If a student is falling behind with their basic math skills and nothing seems to help how would you approach the situation?
Everybody learns differently, so a large part of tutoring is making sure that you can make the lesson individualized for each student. I would find things that interest that particular student and make it relevant to their life. For example, if a child is struggling with division we could take something they like, such as cars, and draw pictures to show them what the problem is asking. I would find a way for it to make sense in their mind by personalizing the lesson.
If a student is struggling with comprehending how to solve complex equations, what will you do to assist them?
If a student isn't understanding how to solve complex equations or inequalities, I'd break it down to the basics. Most of the math is building on previous knowledge, so I'd make sure the student understands the basic parts of it first, and then we would work our way up to solving the actual problem at hand.