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Tutor profile: Dolores C.

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Dolores C.
Five years of critical care nursing experience with the desire to tutor and assist the future nursing generation.
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Questions

Subject: Nursing

TutorMe
Question:

How do I interpret an ABG? What are normal and abnormal values?

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Dolores C.
Answer:

An ABG is known as an arterial blood gas. This tells doctors and nurses if the body is acidic or basic. The body has a very tight window to maintain homeostasis. The normal pH of the body is 7.35 - 7.45. Anything less than 7.35 is considered acidic, and anything greater than 7.45 is considered alkalotic. CO2 and HCO3- alter the body's pH level. A normal CO2 level is 35-45 and is produced by the lungs. A normal HCO3- level is 22-26 and is produced by the kidneys. In order to interpret an ABG, the first question to ask is, is the pH acidic or alkalotic? The next step is to look at the CO2. Is the CO2 within normal range, is it high, or is it low? If it is within normal range, that is an indicator that we need to evaluate the HCO3- levels. If it is abnormal, we still need to look at the HCO3- level to determine which system (respiratory and metabolic) is impaired. Once this is completed, we can determine whether a patient is in respiratory acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, or metabolic alkalosis.

Subject: Chemistry

TutorMe
Question:

What is a buffer?

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Dolores C.
Answer:

A buffer is a solution that has the ability to neutralize acid or a base (with limitations). This results in the pH remaining the same, or very similar until it's capacity has been maximized.

Subject: Basic Chemistry

TutorMe
Question:

Why does an element that is a noble gas not react with other elements?

Inactive
Dolores C.
Answer:

A noble gas is in column 18 of the periodic table, and consists of Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, and Xenon. These gases essentially do not react with other elements because they have a completed outer electron shell. This means there are eight valence electrons in the outermost shell. In comparison, an element like sodium is highly reactive with other elements because it has 1 valence electron in its outer electron shell, and will easily give away it's 1 outer valence electron to have an outer electron shell similar to a noble gas, making it more stable.

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