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Tutor profile: Daniel M.

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Daniel M.
Professor of Anatomy and Physiology
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Questions

Subject: Health and Medicine

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Question:

Aerobic exercise utilizes more calories than anaerobic exercise.

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Daniel M.
Answer:

To best continue conversation with this statement, it must first be known the duration of each activity. For simplicity, let us assume each activity is performed for one hour. Research shows that aerobic exercise results is the catabolism of glucose and other metabolites at a greater rate during activity, when compared to anaerobic exercise over identical durations. However, research also shows that anaerobic exercise results in prolonged recovery, which in-turn requires more catabolism of glucose, protein, and other metabolites at a greater rate 24 hours post exercise, when compared to aerobic exercise of the same duration. Therefore, aerobic exercise burns more calories during the one hour and anaerobic exercise burns more calories over the subsequent 24 hours.

Subject: Nutrition and Wellness

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Question:

Is the ketogenic diet the best diet? Why or why not?

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Daniel M.
Answer:

The ketogenic diet is one of many diets in which some individuals have had success. The supporting scholastic research is limited due to the newness of the diet. Thus, conclusive decisions on its effectiveness are inadequate at best. It is too early on in the research process to draw inferences. What we currently know is that the ketogenic diet severely reduces carbohydrate intake from current dietary recommendations. The theory is that this will contribute to more fatty acid metabolism and a future reliance on triglycerides as an energy source. We currently know that the diet would have to be maintained for this to potentially occurs, as glucose is shown to be the preferred energy source of the body, even when reintroduced after such a diet. Much remains to be observed and the research is not definitive on the effectiveness.

Subject: Biology

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Question:

What is a phospholipid bilayer? Where in mammalian cells do these layers exist? Why are phospholipid bilayers important.

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Daniel M.
Answer:

A phospholipid bilayer is a collective unit of phospholipids. A phospholipid is a lipid with one phosphate component, a glycerol backbone, and two fatty acid chains. The phosphate component forms a hydrophilic head, while the fatty acid chains form a hydrophobic tail. Paired, the collective units form a moat or sorts, which separated intracellular from extracellular in mammalian biology. These phospholipid bilayers exist as cellular membranes in mammalian biology. If the cell has a nucleus, not all do, the cell then has a second phospholipid bilayer termed the nuclear envelope. The necessity of these membranes in mammalian biology is due to the physiological separation of environments. Homeostasis is maintained based on different intracellular and extracellular requirements. For instance, sodium and potassium exist opposing each other across cellular membranes during resting periods. The interaction between the two ions, specifically cations due to the positive charge from one less electron in configuration, aids in the functioning of cells.

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