Tutor profile: Lauren B.
What is the proper way to integrate direct quotes into your writing?
After finding sources that are reliable, it is important to integrate them into your writing using the correct formatting. if you are directly quoting from the source, include the except in quotation marks. Precede the point with either a colon a comma or neither, include the excerpt in quotation marks, and then format the source within two parentheses outside of the quotation marks, followed by a period. The format should look like the following: The house was built in 1910 by "a world renowned architect named Bob Smith who was known for his quirky designs" (Source). Use direct quotes sparingly.
Subject: International Studies
What challenges are going to face the global community in the coming decades? Are international institutions well equipped to address these problems?
The international community is going to be facing a few key issues in the coming decades that will challenge the efficacy of existing global institutions. The first is the pressure that immigration, population change, migration, and multiculturalism have on increasingly nationalist societies. The second is globalization as global forms of capital replace national forms of capital, and global sourcing of goods and services increases. The third is making education more accessible and more impactful. The fourth is the threat of environmental degradation. Although “each country has primary responsibility for its own economic and social development”, the inability for the international community to adequately address these emerging issues is exacerbating insecurity across the international system (“The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”). Some are especially difficult to manage because they involve global public goods or ungoverned spaces, or are considered cross-border problems constituted by externalities that impact communities beyond the host state. Current leaders and institutions that were framed by the global context of the 1940s have rendered incapable of responding effectively to these various crises. There is no tangible means to meet the monetary threshold that is necessary to finance global institutions, and their methodology is outdated. Often, they make promises to the international community that they cannot keep, which challenges their credibility as effective organizations that will deliver on their commitments.
Subject: European History
What was Gorbachev's impact on Soviet domestic and foreign policy during the Cold War?
Gorbachev waged an attack on the bureaucracy in order to reform the economy and mobilized public pressure by becoming more lenient in regards to religion, cultural expression, and the interpretation of Soviet history. His ultimate goal was to bring down the lasting impacts of Stalin’s leadership through openness – “glasnost”. He moved away from arms buildup and military prestige to focus on better diplomatic relations with the West. He also reduced pressure on the Soviet satellite states through periods of revolt in which old dictators and “little-Stalins” were removed from power. He was also a major player in the 2 + 4 Treaty with the Western powers in determining the future of a reunified Germany. Although Gorbachev’s policies moved away from Stalin-era practices, he still engaged in authoritarian behavior; he fired and replaced his advisors with younger versions of the bureaucrats who had run the Soviet system into the ground for the previous three decades. Flexing his power was met with public dissent and an election that he lost to Boris Yeltsin. In 1991 – through coups, political turmoil and instability – Gorbachev resigned as president and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics dissolved.
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