What steps of the citric acid cycle yield NADH, and what is the role of NADH?
The three steps that yield NADH are isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and Malate dehydrogenase. NADH is an electron carrier, and its electrons pass through the electron transport chain and eventually reduce oxygen to water.
What are the three major categories of acids and bases?
An Arrhenius acid is one that when dissolved in water will donate a proton, and an Arrhenius base is one that when dissolved in water will donate a hydroxide ion. A Bronsted-Lowry acid or base is either a proton donor, or a proton acceptor, respectively. Finally, a lewis acid or base is an electron pair acceptor, or an electron pair donor, respectively.
What marks the major differences between meiosis and mitosis?
The major difference between the two is that meiosis results in four different offspring, and mitosis results in two identical offspring. Meiosis 2 and mitosis are similar in that sister chromatids separate during Anaphase. What makes meiosis 1 different is that tetrads form in which two pairs of homologous chromosomes attach and crossing over occurs, leading to genetic variability. Then instead of sister chromatids separating during anaphase, homologues separate, so there is a reduction division in which the number of chromosomes in the cell halves.