Explain the concept of Trophic Cascade, and provide a real-world example of this ecological phenomenon.
Trophic cascade occurs when there is a change in the behavior, or abundance of the top predators, which in turn creates changes in the abundance of species in lower trophic levels. For example, if the population of wolves (the top predator) were to decrease for some reason, we would see less pressure on their prey, deer, for example. As a result, the population of deer would increase, which would then increase the pressure on the trophic level below them, which would be grasses, trees and other plants. The abundance of these plants would then decrease due to the pressure from the increased deer.
Please explain the greenhouse effect and briefly explain the impact this effect combined with rising carbon emissions has on our global climate.
The greenhouse effect occurs when carbon (i.e. Carbon Dioxide, Methane, etc.) is trapped inside the Earth's atmosphere. This causes the atmosphere to react similarly to a greenhouse where one would grow vegetables for example, and creates a warming effect globally, allowing life on earth to exist. However, with rising levels of carbon emissions and the greenhouse effect combined we have seen climate change emerge which has several negative implications, such as melting sea ice, sea level rise, extreme weather, drought, and flood.
Please list four physical characteristics which all mammals share.
1. Are vertebrates (have a backbone/ spine) 2. Are endothermic/ warm-blooded (can regulate their body temperature) 3. Have body hair 4. Produce milk to feed their offspring