Tutor profile: Will C.
What is Kant's categorical imperative? Give both the definition and an example.
Definition: act on that maxim which you could simultaneously with to enforced on the whole world. What Kant means is that you should act in the way you'd want everyone to act all the time. For example, suppose you wanted to cut someone off in traffic so you could get to work on time. Kant would say you can't do this, because you wouldn't want it to be acceptable for everyone to be able to cut each other off in traffic constantly.
What is the main difference between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement?
Positive reinforcement rewards the operant response by giving the learner something they want, like giving a child allowance for cleaning her room. Negative reinforcement rewards the operant response by sparing the learner from something unpleasant, like rewarding a child for a good report card by giving them a week off from their chores.
Sally is testing the hypothesis that her new study skills program boosts students' test scores. She randomly assigns one group of students to use the program and has another group study normally, then she compares there scores. She finds that the difference between her two groups was not extreme enough to merit rejecting the null hypothesis, so she concludes that her program does not work. Sally is incorrect, however; the program really does work, she just failed to find a significant effect. What type of error did Sally commit?
Sally committed a Type II error, meaning that she failed to reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis really was false.
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