What is an additive inverse? Provide an example to support your explanation.
An additive inverse is a number that when added to a yields zero. It can also be considered the opposite number. For example, the additive inverse of 5, would be -5 because when added to 5 it yields 0. 5 + ?= 0 5+ -5= 0
Maria Montessori was a leading force in early childhood education; what are some of the strengths and weaknesses of her methods?
The activities in the Montessori method have roots in their practicality to real daily life. They are meaningful and purposeful activities that teach real skills and develop independent individuals (Schmidt & Schmidt, 2008). They are simple activities such as learning how to use a spoon to transfer a set of items from one dish to another; learning how to pour liquid from one container to another; learning to properly wash a table or rinse out a sponge; learning how to polish a shoe or sweep up a spill on the classroom floor; becoming aware of, and learning how to listen to the body’s signals regarding personal needs whether it be a biological break, snack or need for rest; learning to be observant of, and caring for the environment and learning how to care for the other community members through helpful and courteous actions, empathy and altruistic behaviors (Montessori Foundation, 2008). Practical Life is not the only learning center within a Montessori classroom. Academics are always present and offer opportunities for deeper investigative learning. Beginning with sensorial exercises, the children learn to increase their ability to attend, focus, observe and become aware of their environment and to “consider what comes into their experience” (Montessori Foundation, 2008). Montessorian philosophy strongly emphasizes touch and manipulation of objects for learning, hence there are such materials in each learning center: math and geometry, science, geography, language arts, cultural studies, physical education and the arts (Montessori Foundation, 2008). Strengths Montessori has the only curriculum that has materials for every subject in every main topic from infancy through middle school. The strengths of the Montessori Method are the practical life and sensorial learning strategies. In many ways idealistic, they still provide the organizational skills and work habits necessary for individual and shared success. Because each child creates their own “cycle of work based on” their “individual interests,” the “cycle of self-directed activity” naturally lengthens the child’s attention span and concentration skills (Montessori Foundation, 2008, p. 15). Such strategies easily accommodate various learning modalities, personalities, and ability levels. Assessment is based on the individual’s ability to master a work project which then leads naturally into a more complex work project. Weaknesses The main weakness of the Montessori Method lies in its flexible application. Each school and teacher is able to blend the Montessori Method with their own unique personality and interpretation (Montessori Foundation, 2008). As a result, the Montessori philosophical base is also applied flexibly and no two Montessori schools are alike. Even though the Montessori Foundation provides an accreditation process, each school varies in the level of quality which is offered. There is also a certification process for Montessori teachers, but many teachers at the early childhood level lack certification.
Describe the "Great Migration" and the lasting impact it had on northern cities, such as Detroit, Chicago, and New York.
The Great Migration was a period from 1917 to 1970 where around 6 million African Americans migrated from the South to the Northern part of the United States. African Americans who for centuries resided in the south chose to move their families north for the economic opportunities. For example, the Ford Motor Company hired many of these migrants to work in their factories creating automobiles. Chicago also had a large demand for employees in factories especially during World War I and World War II when European migration slowed down. These jobs created opportunities for African Americans that were not available to them in the South. This, in turn, created other opportunities for building homes, and businesses. The migration also helped to develop a new musical movement in places such as Harlem, New York. With any change comes some conflict. Some of the most memorable conflicts that occurred during the "Great Migration" were the riots of 1919 in Chicago, where racial tensions were high. These tensions can still be felt today in the northern cities where segregated communities are still very common.