Translate the phrase "белая ворона" and then explain its meaning and use it in a sentence. Explain how this example illustrates how literal translations do not always correspond to actual meaning.
"Белая ворона" literally translates to "white crow", however this is actually a very commonly used idiom that roughly translates to "oddball" or someone strange. For example, you could say, "Даниил всегда сидел сам по себе, и по этому все думали что он белая ворона" which means "Daniel always sat by himself, so everyone thought he was an oddball." This shows the importance of understanding and translating Russian sentences as a whole, since the Russian language uses many idiomatic expressions and translating literally will get you a sentence that does not make sense and will take away from your overall understanding.
What is social facilitation and how is it different from social inhibition? What is the prevailing theory as to why some situations cause social facilitation and some cause social inhibition?
Social facilitation is the phenomenon whereby the mere presence of conspecific individuals (members of the same species) will increase someone's performance on a task, and is often observed when the behavior is well-learned or simple. Social inhibition, on the other hand, is the phenomenon whereby the mere presence of conspecific individuals (members of the same species) will decrease someone's performance on a task, and is often observed when the behavior is difficult or has not yet been learned. The prevailing theory as to why this occurs is Zajonc's arousal theory, in which he states that the mere presence of members of your species causes physiological arousal, which increases your likelihood to respond to something in your dominant response (the most easily accessible response for you at the time). If a task is well-learned or simple. your dominant response will help you in the situation and you will experience social facilitation, but if the task is difficult or not well-learned, your dominant response may hinder your performance and you will experience social inhibition.
What are the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and how do these differences help biologists (particularly in biomedicine)?
The main difference between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells is that prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus, while eukaryotic cells do, however, there are other differences in basic cell machinery that are specific to specific types of prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells as well- for example, many of the organelles present in eukaryotic cells are absent in prokaryotic cells. This helps biologists in many ways, including by allowing classification and by allowing biologists to create treatments (such as antibiotics) that target specific cell machinery of a prokaryotic cell without damaging the eukaryotic ones, thus allowing prokaryotes like bacteria to be killed without killing our eukaryotic human cells.