Tutor profile: Jessica F.
Subject: International Studies
How can Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions Theory be used in cross-cultural management?
Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions Theory demonstrates different ways in which people interact within their own culture, in turn allowing us to better expect how intercultural relationships might function. There are six main components measuring how closely related certain norms are between cultures. These are: Indulgence vs Restraint, Long-Term Orientation vs Short-Term Orientation, Uncertainty Avoidance, Masculinity vs Femininity, Individualism vs Collectivism, and Power Distance Index. Understanding these subgroups and comparing the scores between different cultures can allow for a more understanding and compatible work environment for management and employees.
Subject: English as a Second Language
When should I use "had" and "have had"?
Had in this case is referring to the Past Simple structure: it is a single, completed action. The time is finished and/or the action is finished. Have had is using the Present Perfect structure: the time or the action may not be finished or could be unknown. For example: Yesterday, I had an English exam. Here, the time (yesterday) is finished and your action (the English exam) is also finished. That is why the Past Simple is used - had. This week, I have had five exams. Here, the time (this week) is not complete and we don't specify when we had the exams because it might not be important. So, our grammar is going to be in Present Perfect - have had.
Who is considered a Subaltern?
A Subaltern is a term used in Sociology and more specifically in Post-Colonial studies to refer to those who are the most marginalized in society. Typically, they hold a different position than a standard minority group and might be referred to as the "other"; indigenous, tribal, low caste, etc. Those in the subaltern group tend to lack agency politically, economically, and historically.
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