Tutor profile: Tasha D.
How do you know when to use être or avoir?
Avoir and être are auxilliary verbs, which are used in compond compositions. On example (and the most common) is the passé composé. When in doubt, it is best to use avoir, as it is significantly more common. As for être, the easiest way to learn is by using a mneumonic, like DR & MRS VANDERTRAMP: Devenir Revenir & Monter Rester Sortir Venir Aller Naître Descendre Entrer Rentrer Tomber Retourner Arriver Mourir Partir You can also try and remember it by the types of verb that use etre: pronomial and intransitive (of motion). Pronomial verbs (such as s'habiller, se laver, s'assoir) are verbs that reflexive (i.e. the subject of the verb does to itself). Meanwhile, intransitive verbs of motion are verbs of motion that do not have a direct object (examples include sortir and aller).
Subject: World History
Was the Risorgimento a truly nationalist movement?
There is a lot of debate about this, but it seems that overall the answer is no. Firstly, nationalism was not a unifying or even widespread factor during the period, and most people living in Italy at this point did not have any conception of an Italian "Nation". In addition, while some key players, such as Mazzini and Garibaldi, clearly had nationalist intent, others did not (such as Cavour, who ultimately played the biggest role of all). The ultimate result of the Risogiomento was Piedmontese expansion, evidenced by the fact that the Piedmontese king, Victor Emmanuel II, became the king of the newly united Italy, and by the fact that original plans by Cavour involved only the wealthy North, suggesting that there was no true nationalist intent. Overall, the Risorgiomento had many different players, some with nationalist aims and some without, but the overall effect of the Risorgiomento was a monarchist expansion rather than a nationalist unification.
How does Camus use the motif of heat in The Stranger?
Camus uses the motif of heat in several key ways. First, he uses it to develop Mersault's distinctivr characterisation and unique voice. For example, the novel is characterised by three deaths (the Mother, the Arab and of Mersault himself), and at each point Mersault is more preoccupied by the heat than the trauma and emotion of these events, a very different reaction to that of your traditional protagonist. Camus also uses heat to further the narrative of the novel, as the physical and psychological turmoil it incites in Mersault acts as a trigger to key events, such as the shooting of "the Arab". Most importatantly, it is emblematic of both Camus’ existentialist and absurdist theories, symbolising the futility of the human condition, and the universe’ disregard for humanity, Meursault’s preoccupation with the heat, and more widely with his own physical and sensory experience of life, is particularly reminiscent of existentialist theory; there is no higher meaning, and the best way to live is to embrace the real world and find one’s own sense of purpose. Also, the novel’s use of the painful and “overwhelming” heat throughout the novel is representative of nature’s disregard for humanity, and man’s powerlessness to be more than it is. Meursault, despite his torment, cannot escape the heat, and is powerless to resist its influence; by extension, the novel asserts that the universe cares little for the suffering of men, and that resistance is futile.
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