What is the limbic system, what are the parts of the limbic system and its functions?
The limbic system is comprised of the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and hypothalamus. The cingulate gyrus and basal ganglia are close by the limbic system creating a close relationship between the two. The amygdala is located by the hippocampus and is responsible for how we feel about situations beyond our control. When an event is possibly dangerous or threatening, the amygdala is in charge of the way we react to this particular situation. The hippocampus is found in each temporal lobe; this is on each side of the brain where a persons temples meet. The hippocampus manages a person’s long-term memory, as well as spatial navigation and memory, and emotional responses. An individual would not be able to locate their home or workplace without the use of the hippocampus or form new memories to eventually be processed into long-term memory. The thalamus is located above the brainstem; it works as a transitioning system from the sensory receptors to the next area it needs to be processed. This includes senses such as visual, auditory, tactile, and gustatory. Besides sensory interpretation, the thalamus is also in control of the sleep/wake cycle and regulation of consciousness. The hypothalamus is also located above the brain stem but underneath the thalamus, it is considered apart of the limbic system and is accountable for innate driven behaviors such as hunger and thirst. It is also responsible for homeostasis, keeping the person’s body temperature at a maintained level. Lastly, the hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland, which helps regulate the endocrine system. This intimate relationship helps the nervous system an endocrine system work with one another. The anterior cingulate cortex is relative to the limbic system because it shares similar structural location as well as functions. The functions include regulating blood pressure, heart rate, reward system, uncomfortable emotions, and impulse control. The anterior cingulate cortex connects the functions in the limbic system together but is not apart of any of the functions themselves. All of the structures that comprise the limbic system are apart of rewarding feelings or personal pleasure. This can be in relation to satisfying hunger, thirst, or a drug addiction.
In some ANOVA summary tables you will see, the labels in the first (source) column are Treatment, Error, and total. Which of the following reasons best explains why the within-treatments sum of quest is sometimes referred to as the "error sum of squares?"
The within-treatments sum of squares measures random, unsystematic differences within each of the samples assigned to each of the treatments. These differences are not due to the treatment effects because everyone within each sample received the same treatment; therefore, the differences are sometimes referred to as "error."
Who is the Medici family and what was the influence on rome and the connection to pope Leo X?
The Medici family was the name of a ruling family of Florence, Italy. Several members of the family played important roles throughout the history of Italy. The Medici family gained their wealth through banking, especially considering it was a bank pope John could trust. They were a prevailing family that dominated how the government was ran in Florence during the time. Their cultural interests led them to become patrons of the arts, and Florence became an art center under the Medici ruling. This helped Florence to become a leading city in the popularization and rise of flourishing new artists. Michelangelo, Brunelleschi, and Raphael were among the great artists the Medici family helped in order to establish their careers (Class notes: Spirituality in Art). The Medici influence extended to Rome where one of the family members became pope Leo X. He was the pope during the peak of the Renaissance in Rome, but also had to deal with the emergence of the Protestant Reformation. Leo was elected pope in 1513. He was a patron of the arts and a pleasure loving man. Pope Leo X spent luxuriously on papal court performances and on patronage for scholars, composers, and other types of cultural artists such as Michelangelo and Raphael. Pope Leo X was born in Florence, Italy to a dominant Florentine leader, Lorenzo dé Medici. When Leo was the pope, Italy was being fought over by Spain and France in order to gain dominance. Pope Leo X during this time wanted Florence to remain independent and to make headway with what was in the Medici's best interest. When the Protestant Reformation began, Leo was engrossed with cultural aspects of Rome and the ongoing politics in Italy. During the last years of Leo's reign, the Protestant leader Martin Luther guided the everlasting separation between Rome and Protestants (Hartt & Wilkins).