Write the Fourier's Law of heat transfer, clearly stating all the assumptions.
Fourier's law of heat conduction states that the time rate of heat transfer through a material is proportional to the negative gradient in the temperature and to the area, at right angles to that gradient, through which the heat flows. Some assumption for Fourier's law are : 1. Conduction of heat takes place under steady state conditions. 2. The heat flow is unidirectional. 3. The temperature gradient is constant and the temperature profile is linear. 4. There is no internal heat generation. 5. The boundary surfaces are isothermal in character. 6. The material is homogenous and isotropic (constant thermal conductivity)
Why do we need to specify the Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) for a pump?
NPSH is the minimum pressure required at the suction part of the pump to prevent the pump from cavitating. Vapor pressure is the pressure required to boil a liquid at a given temperature. Pump cavitation occurs when the pressure in the pump inlet drops below the vapor pressure of the liquid. Vapor bubbles form at the inlet of the pump and are moved to the discharge of the pump where they collapse, often taking small pieces of the pump with them.
What are the conditions that indicates a liquid-liquid extraction process to reach plait point for a ternary mixture?
For the liquid-liquid extraction process to reach the plait point, following conditions must be satisfied: 1. Density difference between the extract and raffinate phases is zero. 2. Composition differences between the extract and raffinate phases is zero. 3. Interfacial tension between the extract and raffinate phases is zero.