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Tutor profile: Hayanny S.

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Hayanny S.
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Subject: Writing

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Question:

Explain the difference between privacy, confidentiality, and privilege.

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Hayanny S.
Answer:

Privacy is a fundamental right of people to decide how much of their information may be accessible by others. Privacy assures others that their thoughts, assets, property, and any other personal data are protected and secured from any unwanted outside party (Koocher & Keith-Spiegel, 2016). In the psychology field, Privacy is the foundation of establishing a healthy relationship with a client. It reassures the client that everything said during a session remains in that session even after they leave. Although Privacy protects intrusion from outside parties, a psychologist may seek help or guidance regarding a client from an outside professional only if necessary to aid the client (American Psychological Association, 2017). Confidentiality is a sort of contract or agreement between a professional and a client. Unlike Privacy, which is a right, confidentiality is a promise between a professional and a client. This promise is where a professional will not reveal any information acquired from a client to others except if the client agrees. Professionals are obligated to inform their clients about the extent and limits of confidentiality before providing any treatment (Koocher & Keith-Spiegel, 2016). Like Privacy, confidentiality plays a vital role in the relationship between a professional and a client, and both contain the same principle of limiting access and excluding outside parties. In simpler terms, Privacy originates from a client; after a client discloses private information to a professional, it becomes confidential (Smith-Bell & Winslade, 1994). After confidentiality, professionals have an obligation to protect their client’s information unless mandated by law or the legal system (American Psychological Association, 2017). Privilege is associated with the client’s legal right to exempt any confidential information presented to a professional to be revealed in a legal setting without their permission (Koocher & Keith-Spiegel, 2016). Though the client has the legal right to prevent their information from being exposed, the legal system, such as a court, has the power to overrule the exemption if they see fit. For example, if a client is a danger to himself or others, has broken any laws, or has information that can help a case, the court can order the professional to present all necessary communications between the two to the court or legal professionals. To summarize, confidentiality is a professional duty to keep any information acquired from a client secured, and private while privilege is relief from that duty when it pertains to the legal system (Smith-Bell & Winslade, 1994).   References American Psychological Association. (2017). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. American Psychological Association. https://www.apa.org/ethics/code Koocher, G. P., & Keith-Spiegel, P. C. (2016). Ethics in psychology and the mental health professions: standards and cases (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. Smith-Bell, M., & Winslade, W. J. (1994). Privacy, confidentiality, and privilege in psychotherapeutic relationships. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 64(2), 180–193. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1037/h0079520

Subject: Sociology

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Question:

In sociology, we often study how powerful social behaviors and interactions are. Our actions and behavior have the power to influence those around us. For example, it can create conformity and unifications among our friends and colleagues. An example of the power of social behavior and interactions is the phenomenon of Groupthink. First, define Groupthink and then consider if it is a supported or unsupported strategy for resolving ethical conflicts? Lastly, Explain why or why not.

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Hayanny S.
Answer:

According to Simon Taggar, groupthink is where a group of people agrees on a decision without adequately evaluating the situation or thinking for themselves (Taggar, 2017). I believe that groupthink would not be supported as a strategy to resolve ethical conflicts. Groupthink can do more harm than good. It prevents people from thinking and acting independently and can lead to unethical judgments and decisions because of group pressure. Several symptoms are present in the theory of groupthink that helps us understand how it can lead to poor ethical decisions. One of the main symptoms is Direct pressure for conformity or dissidents. Such behavior is dangerous and often removes that group member's ability to think for themselves. Collective rationalization is another big problem that is often present in groupthink. Collective rationalization is where members remove the group's attention from the warning signs through explanation or discrediting them (Taggar, 2017). An example of this would be what we saw on January 6th, 2021. The insurrection happened because of groupthink. Several interviews and videos showed that many people participating in the event were only going along with the crowd. Numerous people stated that they went to Capitol Hill intending to protest peacefully but as soon as they saw others entering the Capitol, pushing officers, and becoming violate, they felt like they needed to do the same. Several megaphone speakers promoted violence, and countless people felt pressured to comply with the group's already unanimous decision. The pressure for violence from other mob members and the gaslighting caused the hesitating members to ignore the ethical dilemmas in that situation and storm the Capitol. The insurrection on Capitol Hill is an excellent example of how harmful and damaging group thinking can be. In the videos, we can see that many insurrectionists had no idea what they were doing or even shouting. They were going along with the crowd to fit in and be part of the movement. References Taggar, S. (2017). Groupthink. In S. Rogelberg (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of industrial and organizational psychology, 2nd edition (pp. 587-589). SAGE Publications, Inc, https://www-doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.4135/9781483386874.n202

Subject: Psychology

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Question:

Define informed consent, and how do professionals in the psychology field establish informed consent? Next, explain how confidentiality relates to informed consent, and what are some legal exceptions to confidentiality? Finally, identify an example of an ethical dilemma that could arise from confidentiality issues in a chosen field of psychology.

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Hayanny S.
Answer:

Informed consent is where a professional in the psychology field informs the client about the research/treatment, how long it will take, the steps in it, and any risk factors. Also, professionals are obligated to notify the clients that they may withdraw at any time and the extent of confidentiality (Koocher & Keith-Spiegel, 2016). Forensic psychology is a bit different from traditional psychology. There are specific aspects in the original Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct that does not apply perfectly to the forensic field. To cover the differences, the American Psychological Association created a separate guide called the Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology, known as SGFP (American Psychological Association, 2011). Forensic psychology and the legal system are often correlated, which means that the section of informed consent in the traditional guidelines cannot apply to forensics. According to the SGFP, those in the forensic field strive to provide informed consent to clients while obligated in the original guide. The Specialty Guidelines state that professionals may provide clients with information about the purpose of the treatment/research, what they find, and any risks. Also, consent from a client is not needed if ordered by a court, regardless of if the client objects to it (American Psychological Association, 2011). To summarize, professionals may not require informed consent depending on the situation and whether a court is involved. For a professional to obtain informed consent, they must also inform the clients about the limitations of confidentiality. There are two main limitations of confidentiality. First, a professional may disclose the client's private information if they present a threat to themselves or others. The second limitation is if the client intends to break the law or has broken the law (American Psychological Association, 2017). In Forensic Psychology, assuring clients that everything they say is confidential is not customary nor legally required (Kalmbach & Lyons, 2006). Due to this, many ethical dilemmas can happen. A great example is when a professional speaks to a client in private. The professional may reassure the client that everything they say stays in that room; nonetheless, others such as the court or other legal professionals will have access to everything spoken in that room. A professional at times may feel morally conflicted about providing outside parties with their client's private information, but in the forensic field, abiding by the law is essential regardless of ethical principles. References American Psychological Association. (2011). Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology. Https://Www.apa.org. https://www.apa.org/practice/guidelines/forensic-psychology American Psychological Association. (2017). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. American Psychological Association. https://www.apa.org/ethics/code Kalmbach, K. C. & Lyons, P. M. (2006). Ethical Issues in Conducting Forensic Evaluations [Electronic Version]. Applied Psychology in Criminal Justice, 2(3), 261-290. http://www.apcj.org/journal/ index.php?mode=view&item=26 Koocher, G. P., & Keith-Spiegel, P. C. (2016). Ethics in psychology and the mental health professions: standards and cases (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.

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