What are the three fundamental types of sociological theories? How does each vary in their view of social reality?
The three fundamental types of sociological theories are positivist, interpretive, and critical theories. First, the positivist sociological theory includes the sociology of Durkheim and structural functionalism. According to positivists, social reality is objective meaning there is only one world despite people’s own perspective and actions. On the other hand, interpretive theorists claim that people make their own realities, or rather, reality is socially constructed. There are many realities for interpretive theories such as Weberian sociology, ethnomethodology, symbolic interactionism, ethnomethodology, and phenomenology. Lastly, for the critical theorists such as Feminist theories, Marxist, and neo-Marxists, reality is characterized by domination and exploitation. The task of sociology for critical theorists is to emancipate people from being dominated. Feminists find causal relationships, structures, set of ideas to explain that there is inequality of gender, and that the structures of the society shape how women are seen and treated. Feminists claim that consciousness of the society has been shaped through history by men through ruling texts or the objectification of women.
What is id, ego and superego?
Id is the first part of an individual’s personality, it is already present during infancy. The id is driven by basic biological needs such as hunger and sexual desires or pleasure. It operates according to the pleasure principle. It is contained in the unconscious mind. On the other hand, Ego is more logical and cunning compared to id. It only satisfies the id in ways that will not result to pain or negative consequences. It follows the norms of the society. In contrast to id, ego functions according to the reality principle. It rationalizes the demands of id and mediates between id and super ego. Super ego is the third and final area of the mind. It is the moral center of one's personality. It holds our sense of right and wrong influenced by society. It also includes the conscience part of an individual. The superego forbids the id to express its desires, thus the two are always in conflict (Atkinson, et al., 1996).
What are the five approaches used to explain variation in police behavior? Briefly describe each.
There five approaches used in explaining police behavior are situational, organizational, individual, community and legal approach. First, the situational approach encompasses citizen demographics, demeanor, relationship between citizen and complainant, etc. This approach on police behavior is centered to how officers make judgments according to the situation handled. Secondly, organizational approach is concerned with how officers deal with a situation as influenced by the nature of their organizations, which involves factors such as department size, officer training, level of supervision, size of the primary assignment area, and organizational culture. Third, individual approach places emphasis on the individual aspects of police officers, which includes educational background, training, socialization, attitudes and outlooks in intervention techniques and how these aspects influence behavior in their profession. Next, neighborhood or community approach explains how an officer deal with various features of a neighborhood such as crime rate, demographic diversity, and economic characteristics. Finally, legal approach examines police behavior according to the seriousness of an offense or the nature of crime and strength of available evidence.