Explain what a Niche species is, and give an example.
A Niche Species is a species of living organism, that will fill an area not normally associated with any other species, using that area in which to live. An example would be the Coyote out west, as it will occupy the areas where a Gray Wolf will not live, often carving out a home area within competing Wolf packs. Essentially, the Coyote will fill the space not utilized by other species.
Describe a real-life version of Heat Transfer and relate it back to Mantle convection.
A nice pot of stew boiling on the stove would be an example of real life Heat Transfer, with the bottom ingredients floating to the top through Convection, followed by the cooling effect at the top, allowing the mixture to return to the bottom, completing the cycle, creating a Convection Current. Relating this to Mantle Convection, hot magma from the Upper Mantle wells up at the Mid-Ocean Ridge (among other places), creating new sea-floor as the two plates spread. At the opposite end of the tectonic plates in that region, after millions of years, gaining material the plates become more dense, sinking until they finally subduct beneath the plate at the edge; returning to the mantle to be recycled again.
The function of the Golgi apparatus in either "real world" terms or functionally defined is:
As a part of the internal sorting process of the cell, the Golgi could be likened to a UPS or FedEx sorting center where packages are brought in, sorted and sent out again. The only addition to that model would be that the Golgi actually sorts and package proteins for the distribution within or out of the cell.