Briefly explain the effect of the Cold War on the space race.
From the end of World War II in 1945, the United States (the beacon of the free world) and the Soviet Union (the beacon of the communist regime) were in a mad rush to command as much territory as possible to spread andn cement their ideals in the war torn remains of the European continent. After the rise of the Berlin Wall in 1961, the gaze of the two dominant powers of the world turned toward space. While the USSR launched Yuri Gagarin into orbit in 1961, making the Soviet Union the first humans in space, US President John F. Kennedy declared in 1962 that the United States of America would be the first country to put a man on the moon. Kennedy declared that this push toward exploration was necessary and that we attempted these feats “not because they are easy, but because they are hard.” Whilst NASA was founded in 1958 by President Eisenhower, Kennedy’s declaration ushered in an age of mass invention and innovation leading to advances in television, satellite communication, household appliances, and, on July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong as the first man on the moon.
Explain a way in which Shakespeare has had a lasting impact on modern culture.
William Shakespeare, legendary 16th/17th century playwright, writer of more than 800,000 words across 38 different plays, master of iambic pentameter, and the Bard has perhaps had the most influence on literature throughout the world than any other writer, certainly more so than any other writer in the English language. From “Hamlet’ (Shakespeare’s longest play) to “The Comedy of Errors” (Shakespeare’s shortest play), the Bard has coined phrases such as “all’s well that ends well,” “dead as a door nail,” and “once more into the breach,” and thousands of original words besides, shaping the English language as we know it today. Numerous adaptations of his works have appeared in the guise of modern day such as “Ten Things I Hate About You” spun from the Bard’s famous “The Taming of the Shrew,” “The Lion King” based on Shakespeare’s “Hamlet,” and the Broadway musical “West Side Story” based on the immortal “Romeo and Juliet.” While the language used in Shakespeare’s plays may at first seem impossible to decipher, which time and practice, one learns to find the wit and poignancy hidden beneath the heavy phrasing.
Explain why the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror led to the rise of Napoleon as ruler of France.
Following the overthrow of the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons in 1789, France was governed by a series of “committees” which were comprised of a panel of men making sweeping judgements of the people of France. Overhauling religion, education, class systems, and the economy of the nation, men rose and fell in power based on wealth and the whims of their enemies. As such Maximillian Robespierre seized power in the Commitee of Public Safety and instituted the “Reign of Terror,” a fervor of mass executions and chaos throughout France, angering revolutionaries and monarchists alike, uniting the country behind the ideal that power should be in the chief command of one man, with a governing council behind him. Favored for his (supposedly) egalitarian ideals, Napoleon Bonaparte rose from the son of a Corsican noble thrown into military academy to First Consel of France and eventually to Emperor, commanding vast legions and power throughout the country, the continent, and the world.