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Emily C.
Recent College Graduate
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French
TutorMe
Question:

En environ 500 mots, expliquez les divers facteurs qui ont mené plusieurs poètes et historiens à s'être penché sur la deuxième moitié du XVIe siècle à qualifier cette période historique de « temps difficiles » ou de temps de « misères ».

Emily C.
Answer:

Le commencement du règne de François II en 1560 indique le debut une période de temps catégorisé comme des « temps difficiles.» Cette période historique qui dure jusqu’au 1610, la fin du règne d’Henri IV, est caractérisé par l’instabilité politique, l’intolérance religieuse et les calamités naturelles. Par conséquent du mort de Henri II, Catherine de Médicis, une aristocratie italienne, prend le rôle de la régente pour son fils François II. Cette transition de pouvoir met en place l’instabilité politique en France. Les doutes au sujet de l’allégeance de la régente et alors le roi futur exacerbent le conflit entre les Protestants et les Catholique s’agissent de la réforme d’Église catholique. L’influence potentielle de la famille Médicis et l’appartenance de la régente à un pays extrêmement traditionnel et catholique produit une vacance du pouvoir. Insatisfait, une série des conflits intérieurs commence entre les familles nobles de provinces et la famille de princes de sang, les hommes qui ont la capacité de s’occuper le trône par naissance. Les trois plus puissants clans nobiliaires de la France, les Montmorency, les Guise et les Bourbons tous s’opposent pour gagner contrôle de la France. Le confit familial devient les guerres de religion, une série de huit confits qui décide les lignes directes de la Couronne et aussi la religion et l’opinion officielle vers protestantisme du pays. Cette période de temps en l’histoire de France fabrique un environnement de trahison, compétition et malveillance. La régente elle-même s’implique dans les actes brutaux. Elle ordre l’assassinat de Coligny, un chef huguenot et un membre du Conseil royal. Sa mort est une partie des millions des casualties pendant ce temps des guerres civiles. Ces batailles sont si fréquentes pendant « les temps difficiles » que personne ne connaît le numéro exact des morts. Les huit conflits des guerres de religion détruisent la population et le paysage de la France. La bataille pour le pouvoir du pays a laissé la France dans un état ruiné. La succession du trône de Henri III n’introduit pas des changements. Le roi isolé au nord dans son centre de pouvoir à Paris, ne diffuse pas son pouvoir aux provinces où les nobles continuent de posséder leur propre pouvoir régional. Comme réparation encore la Couronne commande le massacre des rivaux, le duc de Guise le Balafré et le Cardinal Guise. Cette décision fonctionne comme le catalyst pour l’organisation de l’alliance entre Henri III et Henri de Navarre qui en résultat produit la mort de Henri III par le catholique fantastique Jacques Clément.

Art History
TutorMe
Question:

Discuss the role of the portrait throughout the evolution of the history of art. Uses examples from multiple periods to support your reasoning.

Emily C.
Answer:

Originally portraits were commissioned as status symbols, as indicators of wealth. Portraits were first created for royal families, as a means to dissimulate influence and power. Dating back to ancient Greece, emperors had their images on currency and in public spaces as constant reminders of the presence and power. The first settlers in the American colonies were huge supports of portraits as a way to depict their role and status in society. These were hung in sitting rooms or areas where guessed were received. They were viewed as statement pieces and as a way to impress those that entered into your homes. Art in general, but especially portraits, were extremely expensive and time consuming to create, only the very rich were able to have these displayed. This tradition derived from the aristocracy in England and the colonists wanted to propagate this lineage. As time passed portraits evolved from status items to private token of affection, produced for husband and wife, for lovers to give to one another. Their role in society shifted, they became personal tokens of affection rather than displays of wealth. Young women would have images of their likeness created to give to their men before they left for war. Still today we give pictures of yourself to family members or have group portraits taken to commemorate holidays or special events.

AP Art History
TutorMe
Question:

Discuss the art moment that evolved during the 1860s and how this period in the development of the art of history is widely regarded as the departure point for modern art.

Emily C.
Answer:

The rise of Impressionism is considered the first modern art movement due to its new method of evaluating and implementing three dimensional space and the rise of color theory. These French artists that rose to prominence during the second half of the 19th century were heavily influence by Edo woodblock prints. The high vantage point and the flat colors that were foreign to Western art at this time, changed the manner in which Impressionist artists composed their canvases. The use of complementary colors, of using colors that are across from one another on the color wheel, to enhanced the vibrancy of one another had never been done before. When one looks closely at Impressionist paintings, and the impasto seen on the surface of the canvas, the forms and figures are obscured, it is completely abstract. Only as the viewer steps away from the canvas does the composition reveal itself. The idea of delineated forms, eliminating outlines, and using juxtaposing colors heavily influenced artists to come. Today we think of modern artists as Mondrian, as Ellsworth Kelly or Robert Motherwell, with their lack of depth, large color blocks, and abstracted forms, but all these ideas originated a century earlier in the work of the Impressionists.

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