What are the key differences between Type I and Type II diabetes? What are the treatment options for each type and which is curable?
Type I diabetes is a condition where the body does not produce the hormone insulin, due to damage in the pancreatic islets cells for unknown reasons. Therefore, cells in the body do not receive the signal from insulin to take up glucose from the blood. Type I diabetes must be managed by administering insulin (by injection, or pumps) during meal times to signal to cells to uptake glucose. In contrast, type II diabetes is defined as either insulin resistance, or insulin insufficiency. Similar to type I diabetes, the body cannot maintain normal blood glucose levels. However, type II diabetes is usually the result of environmental factors, such as high BMI, low activity levels, improper nutrition, as well as genetic factors like family history. Type II diabetes is commonly controlled by lifestyle changes including diet and exercise, and sometimes prescription drugs that can reduce blood glucose levels. Type II diabetes is curable.
Describe what inflammation is and how it occurs. Provide an example of a disease/disorder characterized by excess or inappropriate inflammation
Inflammation is a physiologic response characterized my redness, heat, pain, swelling, and possibly loss of function resulting from the innate immune system response to a harmful stimulus. Increased blood flow to the site of the harmful stimulus provides heat and redness. Innate immune cell infiltration and activity lead to pain and swelling. If these responses go unchecked, loss of function in a tissue can occur. Any disease/disorder example containing the suffix 'itis' is caused by inflammation. Examples: tendonitis, dermatitis, hepatitis, colitis
Which if the following correctly describes the central dogma of (molecular) biology? A) DNA is transcribed into cDNA in the nucleus, and cDNA is translated into protein on the ribosome with mRNA adapters B) DNA is transcribed into mRNA in the nucleus, and mRNA is translated into protein on the ribosome with rRNA adapters C) DNA is translated to mRNA in the nucleus, and mRNA is transcribed into protein in the rough endoplasmic reticulum with tRNA adapters D) DNA is transcribed into mRNA in the nucleus, and mRNA is translated into protein on the ribosome with tRNA adapters E) DNA is transcribed into mRNA in the nucleus, and mRNA is translated into protein in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum with tRNA adapters
Choice D is correct. The central dogma of (molecular) biology describes the flow of information from DNA in the nucleus, ultimately to protein assembly on ribosomes. DNA is transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) in the nucleus, mRNA is transported out of the nucleus and translated into protein on ribosomes with the aid of transfer RNA (tRNA) adapter molecules with bound amino acids.