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Tutor profile: Angelina D.

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Angelina D.
Student Tutor ar St. John's University
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Questions

Subject: Psychology

TutorMe
Question:

What is ASPD and how has it been studied in relation to youth diagnosis of conduct disorder?

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Angelina D.
Answer:

The adolescent mind is ever-changing and a time of neurological, social, and emotional developments, all of which, when mixed with an antisocial personality disorder, can lead to many complications. However, being able to pinpoint antisocial tendencies at the most vital age can allow for early diagnosis and treatment which can help redirect their future. Before the age of 18, a child cannot be diagnosed with ASPD, however, they can be diagnosed with conduct disorder. While this disorder is often deemed a lifelong condition, certain features, notably harmful or violent actions, can fade with time in select individuals. Nevertheless, it's unclear if this drop is related to age or a deeper understanding of the negative repercussions of sociopathic behavior. The ability to catch signs of ASPD and CD at an early stage of a child’s life would allow for the prevention of infractions with the law later on in their adult life, which is a highly motivating factor for pursuing this avenue of work. In order to further the understanding of the complexity of ASPD tendencies within the youth and how to approach them, many clinical trials and surveys involving children with aggressive or rebellious behaviors have been performed. For example, the FinnTwin12 study gathered information from parents and teachers of twins born between 1983 and 1987. Additionally, 1035 families with twins reported having concerning behaviors that could signal ASPD or a likelihood of alcohol abuse. From this study, researchers were able to infer that young males have a higher aggression tendency than females and that of 1347 participants (53% female, 64% male), 5% met diagnostic criteria for ASPD. Although sex played a small role, overall it can be concluded that aggression levels are high indicators of ASPD within adolescents, and it should be addressed even before diagnoses at age 18 can be made. In all, research on case studies with both small and large samples continues to be performed in order to highlight the key signs of antisocial behavior in adolescents in order to get a head start on a diagnosis of conduct disorder, treatment, and an eventual diagnosis of ASPD in early adulthood.

Subject: Forensic Science

TutorMe
Question:

What is the significance of DNA analysis and how is PACE furthering the credibility of DNA as evidence?

Inactive
Angelina D.
Answer:

With the exception of identical twins, everyone's DNA is unique. With this distinction, DNA gathered from the scene of the crime may be used to potentially tie a suspect to the evidence or rule out a suspect. Even when no corpse is recovered, it can recognize a victim using DNA from the family. If evidence from one criminal investigation is matched to evidence from another, the two crimes can be connected to the same offender locally, regionally, and nationally. One new development in criminal justice technology is Probabilistic Assessment for Contributor Estimate or PACE. It can be problematic for forensic laboratories to analyze the DNA combinations of more than two donors. It's considerably more difficult to figure out how many individuals contribute to a single DNA sample of a crime scene using typical technology. Considering the number of people that interact with a crime scene, it is easy for multiple DNA prints to be left on the same surface. The usage of PACE allows for complications such as these to be sifted through thoroughly. The PACE software offers the DNA evidence field a completely ongoing pattern recognition solution that allows for rapid and accurate artifact monitoring and estimates the number of contributors in complex DNA blends. The software was built through thousands of tests of DNA samples purposely contaminated with multiple people until the program became so accurate it surpassed a real expert. On a three-person sample, this computer-based strategy surpassed a professional by 6%, and on a four-person sample, it exceeded a professional by 20%. These margins of error can make or break a criminal investigation, as if one sample is not properly separated and analyzed, it can change the pace of the entire investigation, such as who is investigated, and even prosecuted or convicted for a crime. DNA evidence is on the rise as the main source of solid proof of guilt in court, so it is vital that the DNA is being sorted and analyzed as precisely as possible. Developed by Michael Marciano and Jonathan Adelman from Syracuse University, PACE began its introduction into the criminal justice community in 2019 and has since been continuously tested and adopted as a means of studying DNA evidence as accurately as possible. DNA analysis has led many cold cases to be reopened and solved years later, such as the conviction of Darren Roy Marchand for the murder of a young girl, a case finally closed 32 years later. This groundbreaking area of forensic science is one that piques my interest as well as many others who enter the field of criminal investigation. It is as though DNA has become the most solid form of evidence in the court of law, and have led many families to finally be brought to justice with little room for question of bias. The usage of advanced DNA analysis technology strikes me as one more step towards objectivity in terms of forensic biology as it intersects with the subjectivity of the legal system. It is important that physical evidence is as accurate as possible to ensure that one is never wrongly convicted. DNA analysis further ensures that the wrong person will not be subject to punishment for a crime they did not commit, or that a victim will never go unaccounted for.

Subject: Criminal Justice

TutorMe
Question:

How can law enforcement agencies encourage a positive relationship with the youth of diverse communities?

Inactive
Angelina D.
Answer:

One major step that must be taken in order to form a healthy relationship with youth is to try and start crime deterrence at a young age. This can start off locally, by improving the utilization of services that divert young people from arrest and guarantee that all programs are open to young people in all neighborhoods on an equal basis. Police and their community should dedicate time to build appropriate funding to finance services for pre-arrest intervention. In doing this, youth will see that their law enforcement is trying to help them steer clear of trouble and are not after them. This can even begin in schools, by reducing the use of intimidation tactics through police. If the community is to forbid the stationing of law enforcement officers in classrooms to impose classroom discipline, they can restore disciplinary responsibilities to counselors and school administration as originally intended. Children will not feel as though the police are going to punish them for their actions, and therefore reduce the sense of fear youth may have in police due to past history of targeting based on race. Alongside the efforts to reshape the youth’s perception of police, the department should also begin to show its dedication to improving youth-police relations through programs. Communities can reallocate a portion of the proceeds to fund youth engagement services from police agencies and attorneys' offices. Examples include neighborhood youth engagement facilities that offer a supportive environment for young people and provide events such as after-school activities and summer camp services, creative enrichment, counseling, mentoring, and training for jobs and careers. In doing this, youth will feel supported by their law enforcement rather than intimidated and feel more accepted in such diverse communities. This cooperation helps make sure that police identify challenges and create ideas by engaging with neighborhood officials, parents, students, and other partners to embody community ideals that include protecting and fostering the equality of everyone, including those who are at higher risk of being targeted.

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