Lidocaine is a Voltage-Gate Sodium Ion Channel blocker that prevents the influx of sodium ions into neuronal cells. What effect does this have on the transmission of pain through neuronal cells?
Because this drug block the influx of sodium ions, and their positive charge, into neuron cells, it prevents the propagation of an action potential throughout the nerve. Without this action potential, the signal of pain cannot be carried from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic neuron, thus preventing the transmission of pain signals to the brain.
You are studying a group of differently sized proteins, all of which have the same charge and isoelectric points, produced by a laboratory adapted species of E. coli in response to different environmental stimuli. The protein sizes are as follows: Protein A is 100 kDa, Protein B is 60 kDA, and Protein C is 124 kDA. How would you go about separating each individual protein in order to further study their kinetics and dynamics? In what order would these proteins separate?
You would separate each protein based on their size by using Size Exclusion Chromatography. This method uses resin-based beads that differ in size and control the rate at which the proteins flow through the chromatography column. Thus, the larger proteins will become stuck due to their inability to move rapidly throughout the beads. The elution of the 3 proteins will be as follows: Protein B, then Protein A, and finally, Protein C.
One of the many drugs used to treat acne is Isotretinoin, better known as Accutane. This drug is a derivative of the fat soluble vitamin, vitamin A, and is known to be a teratogenic. What does it mean for a drug to be teratogenic?
A teratogenic drug is one that does not cause harm to the patient themselves, but has the potential to cause harm to a fetus if the patient is pregnant.