Tutor profile: Gabrielle D.
Subject: World History
Who are the Mamelukes?
The Mamelukes were young, Turkish non-Muslims enslaved by Muslim armies. They mastered the art of fighting from horseback, otherwise known as furusiyya. Even though they were slaves, Mamelukes were high-status people with a large influence. They would go on to gain control of several Muslim states, including Egypt.
Subject: US History
How did the relationship change between the United States and France after the American Revolution?
After the French Revolution and the Terror, France was ruled by a Directory from 1795 to 1799. At the same time, the French were fighting the French Revolutionary Wars, which spanned throughout Europe. Most notably, the French were at war with the British. This caused the French to decree that all ships carrying British goods would be seized, including vessels from the United States. As the United States continued trading with Britain, the French canceled the 1778 treaty with the new country. This led to the XYZ Affair and the Quasi-War with France that lasted until 1800. Between 1797 and 1799, the French seized 834 American ships, causing insurance rates to double for many shipping merchants.
Subject: European History
What is the connection between the Age of Enlightenment and the French Revolution?
The Age of Enlightenment lasted through the eighteenth century, and was responsible for many revolutionary ideas in Europe. One of the major outcomes of the Enlightenment Era was the French Revolution. In the 18th century, philosophers like Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Baron de Montesquieu were famous among the French for their enlightened thought. Ideas such as scientific reasoning over faith, representative government, and separation of government powers took hold of the French bourgeoisie and nobility as high-profile women held salons to discuss these ideas. One of the most prevalent questions of the time was the true role of the government in economics and its citizens' lives. These ideas were rapidly spreading around Western Civilization so that when King Louis XIV sent French troops to the North American continent to ally with the revolutionary colonists, some soldiers saw Enlightenment Era thought in action as the rebels fought for their ideas of freedom. Finally, it must be said that Enlightenment ideas were not for everybody. Women, people of color, and members of the lower classes were generally not considered directly involved parties when it came to principles of representative government, economics, or science. The idea of "active" versus "passive" citizens was reflected in some of the most significant documents of the French Revolution, especially the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen."