How can I write a well-written argumentative paper?
Argumentative papers are papers that require you to make claims about a certain topic and then back up your claims using academic sources and support sentences. However, argumentative papers should also contain a countering argument and a strong refute to that counter. By doing this, you will make your argumentative paper more reliable. By ignoring the other side of the argument, you make your own argument sound calculated and weak.
It is almost impossible to stay focused while studying material that is boring, so what is a way to maintain focus through tough material?
It is definitely hard to stay focused when the material bores you and makes you want to be distracted. However, material as such should not be handled pessimistically and also should not be seen as something that is impossible to overcome. When you know the material is boring and you will not want to study it, give yourself ample time before the date of the exam to study. While studying, do not attempt to study the entire material all at once and then think you will just review before the test. This is very tough because your brain will not retain information that you have merely read and not actually learned. When studying gets boring, give yourself small motivations and rewards. For example, after you finish one page of studying and taking notes, give yourself a gummy bear. Furthermore, after you finish 30-45 minutes of studying, give yourself a 5 minute break in which you don't watch tv or use your phone and instead go outside to get some fresh air. By doing this, you will be more focused throughout the study session and you will have a fresh mind. When you force your brain to study a large amount of boring material in a short period of time, your brain will struggle to retain all of that information and you will often lose focus because you are not as fresh-minded or motivated to study. Another way to study boring material is to make it fun, such as making a song out of the material to remember it better or coming up with an acronym.
In the focus of logic, what is the difference between indicative and counterfactual conditionals? Use examples.
An indicative conditional is a conditional statement that has the form "if A, then B". An indicative statement expresses a belief. A counterfactual conditional contains an antecedent cause (if clause) that is contrary to fact, or contrary to something that has happened. The difference between these two conditionals is the tense they are used in. Since indicative uses an if clause that is in the past, the counterfactual conditional contains an if clause that expresses a conditional mood. For example: Since after the assassination of Present Kennedy, a lot of the general public has believed that Oswald did not commit the murder and was being framed as a part of a government conspiracy. Hence, we can use the following indicative conditional: 1) Indicative conditional: "If Oswald did not kill Kennedy, then someone else did." 2) Counterfactual conditional: "If Oswald had not killed Kennedy, then someone else would have." The main difference between the two is the tense and the emphasis on the words used. We can believe that the indicative conditional is probable, but the counterfactual conditional cannot be probable in all possible worlds (in terms of modal logic). If we believe 1, we do not have to believe 2.