What is the difference between the expressions "attendre dans la file d'attente" and "faire la queue", and what do they mean?
The two expressions above may be used to express the same thing. In English, both are roughly translated to mean, "to wait in line". However, these two can be used interchangeably. Both of the expressions above can be used in oral language, but also are appropriate in a written paper as well.
What is the difference between the meaning of the following homograph (polish): 1. She is Polish. 2. I am buying some nail polish.
The first sentence uses the word Polish to refer to the ethnicity of the person in question. Note the upper case P in Polish. The second sentence uses the word polish in reference to a product that is used to paint one's nails. Although both words are spelled the same, they are pronounced differently and have different meanings.
In which way did the 16th century Price Revolution impact the everyday life of nobles and commoners in early modern Europe?
Life became drastically more expensive as inflation hit Western Europe. As the purchasing power of money declined, the currency became worth less and as a result, prices rose. Initially, the haves were affected far more than the have-nots. From a social standpoint, nobles found it difficult to continue living as they once had. Their lifestyle suffered as a result. They were expected to demonstrate their place in society and their social rank with the type and quality of clothes they wore, not to mention what meat they served to guests and how heavily spiced it was. Similarly, nobles were also required to have horses at their disposal, which they also were in charge of housing. Economically speaking, the income of nobles was hit hard due to the fact that their main source of income was tied in rental payments made out to them by the commoners. These payments were protected by law and could not be raised. Thus, rental payments remained fixed and were paid-out in cash. In reaction to the introduction of inflation (which was new at this time; prices had remained constant over a period of hundreds of years prior), as well as price fluctuation following a long period of stability, the nobles attempted to resurrect old laws that had fallen into abeyance, but that were still technically in the books. They tried to compensate by squeezing the commoners for every penny they could to solve their financial suffering by increasing the cost of fines and the renting-out of farming equipment (for those who were serfs, and thus tied to the land). This resulted in what is known as the Feudal Reaction by the peasants. Suddenly, many commoners were unable to provide for their families and faced starvation and poverty. At this time, there was no social welfare in place to combat this, and as such the only aid was the Church.