Tutor profile: James Ryan S.
Are you willing to proofread and edit papers?
I would be more than happy to help proofread and go over any papers for grammatical and spelling errors. I would also be more than happy to review content over subject matters involving history and political science.
Subject: World History
1. According to Voltaire, how should religious minorities be regulated? Why? Why is any kind of fanaticism dangerous? How does he describe intolerance?
According to Voltaire religious minorities such as, the Huguenots and Calvinists, should be treated in a similar way as how to the Catholics are treated in England. Religious minorities should have protections that Voltaire calls natural laws. “They ask only the protection of natural law, the validity of their marriage, security as to the condition of their children, the right to inherit from their fathers, and the enfranchisement of their persons”. Voltaire describes how though the Catholics are not allowed to hold public office in England they can live peaceably which is how he believes these religious minorities should be treated. Voltaire also describes fanaticism as a disease of the mind. It inspires discord and destroys obedience to the law. Voltaire believes that the way to combat this is through reason. Voltaire states, “reason is gentle and humane. It has more power to make obedience to the laws attractive than force has to compel”. By using reason one has more power to persuade others than if they were to force obedience on them. Voltaire also describes intolerance as “absurd and barbaric”. Voltaire describes the violence men engage in over religious differences and how if it were natural and right every different culture would be constantly destroying each other. Voltaire sees this as unnatural, unreasonable, and destructive. He specifically directs his attack towards Christians, who he states, “have long devoured each other”.
Subject: European History
What theological ideas get decided at the Council of Trent? How do they directly respond to Luther and Protestantism, for example?
Many different theological ideas are decided at the Council of Trent. The Council decrees first that that Holy scriptures and Catholic traditions are the source of truths and rules for the religion. This is in contrast and response to Luther’s rejection of Catholic traditions and rituals as a source of God’s word. Luther believes that the only source of God’s word to be the scripture and the Catholic rituals and traditions did not matter. The council continues in this first decree to names of the books they deem to be acceptable as God’s word. At the end of the first decree it is also mentioned that in the Catholic Church the Bible is to be read only in the old Latin Vulgate. This again is in contrast with Luther’s translating of the Bible into his vernacular language. The second decree expands upon the authenticity of Bibles when it comes to teaching or translating the Bible. It places restrictions on the printing of Bibles and decrees that no one may “interpret them contrary to that sense which holy mother Church, to whom it belongs to judge of their true sense and interpretation.” Therefore, no one may interpret the Bible in any way, other than the way the Church deems appropriate because the Church is the only body, in their belief, to be able to judge and interpret these teachings or matters. These decrees and actions are in direct response to the spread of Protestantism during this time. The Church was feeling threatened and began to take steps to slow the spread of Protestantism and ideas of Martin Luther. Many of these things, such as the idea that Catholic tradition and rituals were deemed to have an important role as a source of religious truths, were a direct response to Martin Luther’s ideas, that stood in contrast of Catholic teachings, that were quickly spreading throughout Europe.
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