What is a pants role? Give an example of a pants role in Shakespeare.
A pants role is a female role in which the character must disguise herself as a man. She will usually assume the identity of a young man of service. To do this, she must cover her hair and trade her gowns for trousers, hence the term "pants role". Shakespeare's first pants role is Julia in "Two Gentlemen of Verona". Other examples include Rosalind in "As You Like It" and Viola in "Twelfth Night".
How did the tradition of publishing books serially in periodicals affect the novels of the 19th century?
The authors were paid by installment, so it was in their best interest to keep their readers interested and continue the story for as long as possible. The serialized nature allowed for a conversation between the author and reader. When a books was released over a long period of time in installments, it allowed for audience response to influence the plot going forward.
How did Mystery Plays of the Middle Ages affect the concept of morality in Elizabethan drama?
During the Middle Ages, non-religious theatre was largely banned, and so troupes of traveling players went around presenting plays primarily based on the Bible. By the time Shakespeare and his contemporaries were writing, theatre was a more secular art form. However, the Elizabethans still believed in a world that was ordered and ordained by God. The "bad guys" in any given Elizabethan play will always be punished at the end because that order must be restored. The tragic heroes must die because they have sinned. The valiant and pure of heart are victorious. This is especially true regarding the succession of royalty because of their belief in the Divine Right of Kings.