After the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1815, representatives of the allied powers who had defeated Napoleon met at the Congress of Vienna. In the Congress of Vienna, the Concert of Europe was established. Why was the Concert of Europe established and what was it's purpose?
After a series of bloody conflicts caused by both the French Revolution and the rise of Napoleon, the European monarchies feared a repeat of such events. An international mechanism was installed to prevent Europe from being affected by revolutions in France or elsewhere. The Concert of Europe stood against the ideals of liberalism and nationalism, ideas that threatened the monarchical system. When needed the European powers involved would use force to end revolutions or protests before they spread. It also restored monarchies that had previously been removed by Napoleon's wars.
What is the difference between Causative verb conjugation and causative passive?
The Causative form of verb conjugation is used when you want to describe a person making someone do something and a person letting someone do something. ex. "My boss made me work late with him" ex. 2 "I will let my children play videogames" Causative passive is used when you want to say that you were forced or made to do something, things that you did not want to do. ex. "I was forced by my boss to work late with him.""
How and when are we supposed to use the grammatical particle 了？What tense is it for, future or past?
There are many ways to use 了. Here are a few ways: 1. to express a change of state- 今天 我 25 岁 了 (I turned 25 today) 了- isn't intended to be just one tense it can be used to describe both past and future as shown below. 2.to express completed actions a. 你 今天 早上 吃 了 什么？What did you eat this morning? (past) b.你 到 了 告诉 我。When you have arrived tell me. (future)