Your test has 50 questions, each worth 2%. If you get 70% of the questions correct, how many questions did you get wrong? How many more questions would you have needed to get correct to receive a 90%?
First you need to translate 80% into a decimal. As all percentages are part of 100, you would divide 80/100 = 0.80 Next, you multiply this number by the total number of questions on your test: 0.8 x 50 = 40 correct answers of the possible 50, making the final step 50-40= 10 incorrect answers. In order to get a 90% on the test, you would repeat the first step above: 90/100=0.90 x 50 = 45 correct answers. You then subtract the amount of answers that you would have needed (45) by the amount you actually received (40): 45-40= 5. You would have needed to get 5 more questions correct in order to get a 90%.
What are Kant's two universal maxims? Briefly compare them to a consequentialist's ethical system.
Kant's ethical theory of duty involves to universal maxims: 1) act according to the maxim that it would become a universal law; and 2) act so that you treat everyone as an end in themselves, never as a means to an end. Taken together, Kant's theory, known as deontology, cares about human dignity, and only acting in such a way that it would be acceptable if everyone was to do so the same thing. An example of the first universal law would be: imagine if you were to give a homeless person one dollar, would the world be better off if everyone gave a homeless person one dollar? Yes. But if you skipped a line to get coffee because you were late for a meeting, would the world still function properly if everyone else did so? Probably not. As for the second law, it wants to ensure that you do not use a person simply to get what you want - i.e. never exploit another person - but instead appreciate each and every person with the dignity that they deserve, simply for being another human being. Deontology may sometimes fall in stark contrast with consequentialism, whose name is very fitting. This moral philosophy is concerned with the consequences of actions, or better said 'do the ends justify the means'? The most notable example of consequentialism is utilitarianism, which believes the most desirable outcome is that which maximizes happiness. While deontology is concerned with the action itself and if it is morally acceptable, consequentialism is concerned with the moral acceptability of the outcome. It does not necessarily matter that you exploit someone, or that it might not be an action that everyone could take, as long as the end result has maximized happiness.
What are the stages of the cell cycle and at what stage does cellular division take place? Which stage prepares the cell for cellular division, and how does it achieve this?
The stages of the cell cycle are divided into two important phases - interphase and the mitotic phase. There may also be a third phase - 'G 0' - which is a resting phase, removing the cell from an active state. Interphase is all about preparing the cell for division. It does this through three steps: G1 phase, S phase, and G2 phase. The first phase, also know as the first 'gap' phase or 'growth' phase, is required for the cell to grow and generate the molecular building blocks that are needed in S phase and the later mitotic phase. During S phase the cell forms a complete second copy of its DNA in the nucleus, as well as a centrosome. These are required during the mitotic phase to ensure each new daughter cell gets a full set of DNA. Next, the cell moves into the final gap phase (G2) where it continues to grow and synthesize proteins and organelles, completing its final preparation for the mitotic phase. The mitotic phase (or M phase) involves two different processes required for cellular division: mitosis and cytokinesis. Mitosis has 4 distinction stages, each with a different role to play in the separation of the cellular chromosomes. Finally, the cell enters into cytokinesis, which involves the final separation of the two daughter cells.