Tutor profile: Jenny R.
Why is getting a ticket for speeding considered positive punishment instead of negative reinforcement?
Good question! Remember that punishment refers to a consequence of response in operant conditioning where the frequency of the response wants to be DECREASED, whereas reinforcement is a consequence of a response that wants to be INCREASED. Since a speeding ticket's purpose is to discourage speeding, this would mean that it is considered a punishment. Further, this punishment is positive because it is ADDING an unfavorable consequence to the operant response; a speeding ticket is GIVEN. In contrast, negative punishment is TAKING AWAY A FAVORABLE consequence; a speeding ticket is neither taken away nor favorable. An example of a negative punishment might be taking away someone's driver's license.
Subject: Basic Chemistry
Why does electronegativity increase going from left to right and down to up on the periodic table?
Good question! Recall that electronegativity is how much an atom wants to attract electrons in order to participate in a chemical bond. When you go from left to right along a period on the periodic table, you are adding more electrons AND more protons, the latter of which causes a stronger positive pull from the nucleus, thus causing the atom to pull harder for electrons; the trend for electronegativity thus increases as you go to the right and add more protons. Next, remember that atomic size increases when you go down a group on the periodic table since you are adding more shells to the atom. This increase in shells causes more electrons to shield the nucleus and also creates a greater distance between the positive nucleus and other atoms. In effect, the larger the atom, the weaker the positive nucleus becomes due to this electron shielding and distance. Therefore, as an atom gets smaller, less of the nucleus is shielded, and the atom can more readily draw electrons toward itself to create bonds.
Why are X-linked recessive traits more likely to affect males than females?
Good question! Recall that a biological male has one X and Y chromosome whereas a biological female has two X chromosomes. In order for an individual to express a recessive trait they must only have the recessive allele, this means that they must be homozygous recessive since dominant alleles override recessive alleles when it comes to gene expression. In the case of X-linked recessive traits, this fact must be true for females: they must have two recessive alleles in order for that trait to be expressed, this means that they must inherit the recessive allele from their mother and father. Now, males, only have one X chromosome. This means that they only need to inherit one recessive allele from their mother in order for that recessive trait to be expressed. Statistically, this manifests in males being more susceptible to expressing X-lined recessive traits.