Tutor profile: Danielle F.
What is the Bystander Effect as outlined by psychologists Lataney and Darley?
The Bystander Effect is a very interesting phenomena that occurs in human nature (and possibly in the animal world as well). The Bystander Effect and the studies that Lataney and Darley conducted in the 1960's were about human response to helping others (especially those in emergency situations). We typically believe that if we witness (see or hear) a person in trouble that we will go and help the individual or the group. However, this often depends on whether we are alone or with a group of people. The Bystander Effect occurs when people are in a group they become less likely to help or respond to an apparent emergency. When in a group, we all tend to believe that the other people will respond and therefore we don't need to. But when we're alone, there is no choice and no one else to lean on. Lataney and Darley found that the presence of others tends to inhibit people's helping behaviors. Thus, the more people in a group that witness an emergency, the less likely help is to happen. I've always found this idea mind-boggling and interesting. I also really enjoy the various studies that Lataney and Darley performed when researching this idea of the Bystander Effect.
Subject: US History
What was the cause of the America Civil War?
The American Civil War has several causes. First, there were vastly different economic systems occurring in the North and the South. While the North was focusing mainly on manufacturing, the South was dependent on cash crops and agriculture. The big money-maker for many Souther farms was cotton. But cotton (and other cash crops) were quite labor intensive to farm for profit. Thus, the need and use of slave labor. And while slavery was relatively a North-South issue with the South using this labor system far more than the North, it was not always a social issue. For many in the South, slavery was a way of life. It was the only way for plantation owners to make money (regardless of the horrific cruelties suffered by African and African-American slaves). There were obviously many people who were morally opposed to slavery. But, most Americans at the time simply saw slavery as an economic institution. The North didn't want the South to use it not so much because of a moral stand point but because of an economic and political standpoint. The South wanted their slaves to be counted as part of the population for representation in the government. The North obviously did not because that would give the South more power. And typically the South was Democrats and the North was Republicans. Thus, if the South gained control over Congress, they would likely always maintain majority because there would always be more people in the South if slaves were counted in the population (hence the 3/5 Compromise). Another big event that played a part in causing the Civil War was Abraham Lincoln's 1860 election. Lincoln was a Republican who would likely ban slavery. Thus, the Southern states warned that if he was elected they would secede. Lincoln went on to win the 1860 election without a single vote from the South. Thus, Southern states seceded from the Union. Lincoln did not want to fight a war within his country. He had hoped to do everything in his power as Commander-in-Chief to keep the nation together. But, this was not to be. The Southern army (the Confederacy) fired on the Northern (Union) Fort Sumter which was located in South Carolina. Lincoln had warned that if this would happen it was a declaration of war by Confederate president Jefferson Davis. And thus, the American Civil War began. To sum up quickly the 5 causes of the Civil War: 1. Economic Differences -North = Manufacturing -South = Agriculture (mainly cotton) using slave labor 2. Slavery -North didn’t want it, South did 3. (1860) Lincoln’s (Republican) Election -Southern states warned they would secede if he won -Lincoln won election w/out a single vote from the South 4. Southern State Secede (break away from U.S.) 5. Confederates Fired on Fort Sumter (Union/Northern fort located in South Carolina)
What is your favorite form of dance and why?
While I love and appreciate almost all forms of dance, my favorite form of dance is ballet. I believe that all dance stems from ballet. Thus, if one is fluent in this area, they are able to learn and likely somewhat "master" the other various art forms of dance. I also absolutely love and adore the graceful athleticism of ballet. To the untrained eye ballet may looks graceful and simple but it is quite the opposite. Another thing I love about ballet is the quest for perfection. While no dancer or ballerina will ever be perfect, ballet stresses (more so than the other disciplines) the constant growth and desire to be better and better after each class. Perfection in ballet is impossible to obtain but it is always sought after by the dedicated ballerina. And finally, I love the technique required in ballet. There is no hiding a lack of technique within this discipline like there is in some of the other dance styles. Thus, I love that desire to grow as a technician to be the best. Overall, dance is a huge passion in my life and something that I love beyond words. And ballet is where my heart lies within the dance disciplines.
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