What are the differences in deciding whether or not to use "estar" or "ser"?
In Spanish, "estar" is used in cases of more temporary being. This is often associated with more short-term, temporary states. For example, estar is used to describe feelings/moods, physical location, and current acts (verbs ending in "-ing"). A little rhyme to remember this goes, "for how you feel and where you are, ALWAYS use the verb estar" In Spanish, "ser" is used in cases of more permanent being. Ser made be used to describe one's identity, which could include physical appearance, gender, profession, age, and so on. Ser is also used to describe possession, as well as events that are tied to time, such as seasons, date, the time of activities, and so on.
What is the Bystander Effect?
The Bystander Effect is the finding that a greater number of bystanders who witness an emergency lead to a lower likelihood of any one of these bystanders intervening. This is likely caused by a diffusion of responsibility seen when there are many bystanders. An example of this would be the Kitty Genovese murder (1964), in which many bystanders heard the crime occurring yet failed to intervene.
What are the differences between aristocracy, monarchy, and democracy?
Each of these terms refer to different forms of rule or governance. Aristocracy is rule by the few, who are usually wealthy, in the interest of the whole community. Monarchy is rule by one individual in the interest of the whole community. Monarchy typically denotes kingship or a hereditary claim to rule, such as in the succession of kings. Democracy is rule by the people, often denoted by free elections in which rulers are elected by the people and for the people.