Why is flourine the only halogen that does not form a strong acid?
Flourine has the fewest layer of electrons so the valence electrons are more attracted to the nuclus. Therefore the proton in HF is harder to remove than that of other acid halogens. Other acid halogens have more electron shells, which produces a shielding effect, allowing the proton to easily fall off the atom. This ease of losing the proton make for a stronger acid.
Why is it that carbon can't bond to more than four molecules but phosphorus can bond five chlorine atoms in PCl5?
Carbon is on the second row in the periodic table while phosphorus is on the third, which means it has access to the 3D orbitals. The s and p orbitals available to carbon allows it to form four covalent bonds while the nature of the d orbitals allow the formation of 5 covalent bonds.
What is the purpose of Cellular Respiration and how is it different in anaerobic and aerobic organisms?
The purpose of cellular respiration is to break down sugar to produce ATP. The beginning of cellular respiration is glycolysis which produces 2 ATP molecules in both anaerobic and aerobic organisms. In anaerobic organisms, fermentation and lactic acid metabolism run alongside glycolysis. In aerobic organisms, the citric acid cycle, electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation fully oxidizes the remainder of the glucose molecule, after glycolysis, to produce 30 ATP molecules in eukaryotes and 32 ATP molecules in prokaryotes.