When conducting R programming, when are quotations needed to create successful code?
In my time tutoring as an R programming tutor, the use of quotations in R code has been a frequent question I have been asked to answer! The answer is surprisingly simple: quotations are used in R to refer to existing qualitative objects with specific names. For example, say I wish to read into R a csv file that is entitled "Data.csv." Let's say I wish to name that data "data." To do this, I will need to type data <- read.csv("Data.csv"). I need the quotations in this case because, as I have noted, I am referring to a qualitatively titled object that is known only by "Data.csv." I therefore use the quotes in this instance to instruct R that I am wishing for it to locate a file by this exact name.
What does it mean for the United State to possess a federal system of government? What are some benefits and consequences of this governmental setup?
The United States' federal system of government means that it contains a central, national governmental body that is responsible for governing the whole of the country. In turn, the United States' federal system also includes regional bodies of government (such as state and city governments) that provide further governmental representation for these areas. The federal system was established by the founders of the United States in the Constitution, and it has many benefits: for example, the federal system provides abundant representation to citizens of the United States, allows many different sites for the testing of new policies and political programs, ensures adequate coverage of the needs of citizens, etc. The federal system, some proponents argue, is also crucial to maintaining a fair and just government system that is unlikely to fall to corruption or favoritism. However, the federal system also includes certain challenges. One large challenge of the American federal system is that policy priorities and topics are not neatly allocated to different levels of our government. For example, if a citizen is looking to make a request to a public official to pass tax reform, it may not be clear which public official should be contacted or should be held responsible for taking such an action. Relatedly, the American federal system can also provide for a slow rate of policy creation. Different levels of the American government may defer responsibility for certain policies and pass them on to other levels of government, decreasing the pace of governance and making it harder for new political changes to be implemented.
What type of goods might peanut butter and jelly be? If the price of peanut butter rises, what can we expect to occur with respect to demand for jelly?
Peanut butter and jelly are often consumed together in the form of peanut butter and jelly sandwiches! Accordingly, these two goods might be known as complements -- goods for which demand is closely connected. In other words, if one demands more peanut butter, they will typically demand more jelly. Taking the assumption that peanut butter and jelly are complements, if the price of peanut butter rises, we should expect demand for jelly to fall. This is because the rising price of peanut butter (assuming peanut butter is a normal, or standard type, of good) will induce lower demand for this product. For example, we can expect consumers to either buy less peanut butter or stop purchasing peanut butter entirely (perhaps they will move to a different type of nut butter). Regardless, that falling demand for peanut butter should create lower demand for jelly, as we are assuming that these two products are enjoyed together. Thus, a rising price of peanut butter should create lower demand for peanut butter AND jelly!