To what extent did the events of World War II influence the politics and culture of the 1960s?
World War II influenced the 1960s to a large extent. When the soldiers returned from WWII, they wanted everything to return to normal. That meant the women who had gotten used to taking over for their husbands in factories reverted back to their traditional role as homemaker and mother, while their husbands went back to their jobs. Their desire of normalcy—and the security that comes with that—resulted in widespread uniformity. Suburbs became the new trend: houses that all looked the same in quiet neighborhoods, filled with families who looked the same, children who would go off to the same colleges and have the same futures. The families found comfort in this uniformity. There was nothing to fear in things that were all the same. But their children found this uniformity to be stifling, and found refuge in the newly created transistor radios and rock and roll music. They embraced this counterculture, which not only was wholly different from their parents' likes, but also rejected their parents' likes. They started to dabble in drugs, rock music, and pre-marital sex because these were all things their parents did not approve of. While the self-dubbed "Greatest Generation" of WWII thought they were better because they had made the ultimate sacrifice for democracy, their children thought they were holding America from being a good country because of their outdated ideas. Thus, they took up protesting against the Vietnam War, advocating for birth control, and civil rights for African Americans—all liberal movements that encouraged freedom, choice, and rebellion. and This wave of young people running headfirst into liberal ideas contributed to creating the 1960s as we know it today: taking on "the man", rock and roll music, and politics and culture that reject everything associated with establishment and tradition.
How does the reliability of a narrator influence how one reads a story? Use a character from a piece of literature you have read as an example.
In The Great Gatsby, Nick Carraway is our narrator, but not necessarily a truthful one. The only version of events we receive as readers are Nick's, so we have to take everything he says with a grain of salt. Nick, as a character, may seem innocent at first because of his naivete and lack of knowledge of this wealthy world Gatsby, Daisy, and Tom are part of, but he has many reasons to be untruthful and try to cover for himself. Because he almost single-handedly reunited Gatsby and Daisy and helped set off a terrible string of events, of course he would want to shirk off his responsibility and place the blame, instead, on the vain, selfish, careless, rich people he's surrounded by. As he says, Daisy and Tom created messes that they left for others to clean up without any care for anybody else. With such harsh language, it is easy to believe Nick and think he is the "good guy" in this story, especially as we are only seeing events through his eyes. However, we have to keep in mind that we are not receiving every perspective, therefore we are not receiving the full truth. What Nick says could be anything from his own slanted point of view to flat out lies, so we have to retain a certain amount of doubt while reading his side of the story.
How did Caravaggio's painting style differ from his contemporaries', and how did it influence later painters?
Caravaggio added a sense of drama and realism to his paintings that his contemporaries did not. Using tenebrism, he focused the painting around his subjects, heightening the feeling of drama and emotion in his paintings. His subjects, furthermore, looked like real people—their emotions were visible, their bodies were very realistic. Caravaggio wanted to appeal to the masses with his artwork. His novel use of dark and light (chiaroscuro) to create a sense of narrative and drama, along with his combinations of religious subjects and "normal" subjects, led later painters to follow in his footsteps, such Artemisia Gentelleschi of the Caravaggisti movement.