When instructed to write a paper that demonstrates a "closereading" ability, what does that mean?
Mastering the skill of "close reading" involves picking out very specific sentences, phrases, or words from a text and expanding on their utility in the passage or work at large. Close reading, on a very basic level, is an assessment of the author's word choice; it requires the reader to analyze what a particular word or phrase is actually doing to convey the message at hand, and how it goes about doing that. This is often a personal interpretation that can vary from reader to reader.
Why is water known as the universal solvent?
The bond between hydrogen and oxygen in water is a polar covalent bond, meaning electron density is shared unevenly between the two molecules. This is because oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, which makes it so that oxygen has a partial negative charge while hydrogen has a partial positive charge. This separation of charges allows water to interact with both positive and negative ions (cations and anions) as the hydrogens on water are attracted to anions while the oxygen is attracted to cations. These types of attractions, between water and charged ions, are generally known as ion-dipole forces. It is this type of intermolecular interaction (meaning between two different molecules rather than two of the same molecule) that is responsible for the strong and universal solvating property of water. Because of it, water can effectively break up ionic salts composed of cations and anions and form a shell around each one, which ultimately leads to dissolution.
What is the difference in functionality between protein kinases and protein phosphatases? What is the similarity between these two biological molecules?
Protein kinases add a phosphate to proteins in a covalent linkage. Protein phosphatases remove a phosphate from proteins. The similarity lies in that they are both proteins themselves, specifically enzymes.