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Dhawal H.
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Question:

Essay Tips: 7 Tips on Writing an Effective Essay

Dhawal H.
Answer:

Writing an essay often seems to be a dreaded task among students. Whether the essay is for a scholarship, class, or maybe even a contest, many students often find the task overwhelming. While an essay is a large project, there are many steps a student can take that will help break down the task into manageable parts. Following this process is the easiest way to draft a successful essay, whatever its purpose might be. According to Kathy Livingston’s Guide to Writing a Basic Essay, there are seven steps to writing a successful essay: 1. Pick a topic. You may have your topic assigned, or you may be given free reign to write on the subject of your choice. If you are given the topic, you should think about the type of paper that you want to produce. Should it be a general overview of the subject or a specific analysis? Narrow your focus if necessary. If you have not been assigned a topic, you have a little more work to do. However, this opportunity also gives you the advantage to choose a subject that is interesting or relevant to you. First, define your purpose. Is your essay to inform or persuade? Once you have determined the purpose, you will need to do some research on topics that you find intriguing. Think about your life. What is it that interests you? Jot these subjects down. Finally, evaluate your options. If your goal is to educate, choose a subject that you have already studied. If your goal is to persuade, choose a subject that you are passionate about. Whatever the mission of the essay, make sure that you are interested in your topic. 2. Prepare an outline or diagram of your ideas. To write a successful essay, you must organize your thoughts. By taking what’s already in your head and putting it to paper, you can see connections and links between ideas more clearly. This structure serves as a foundation for your paper. Use either an outline or a diagram to jot down your ideas and organize them. To create a diagram, write your topic in the middle of your page. Draw three to five lines branching off from this topic and write down your main ideas at the ends of these lines. Draw more lines of these main ideas and include any thoughts you may have on these ideas. If you prefer to create an outline, write your topic at the top of the page. From there, begin to list your main ideas, leaving space under each one. In this space, make sure to list other smaller ideas that relate to each main idea. Doing this will allow you to see connections and will help you to write a more organized essay. 3. Write your thesis statement. Now that you have chosen a topic and sorted your ideas into relevant categories, you must create a thesis statement. Your thesis statement tells the reader the point of your essay. Look at your outline or diagram. What are the main ideas? Your thesis statement will have two parts. The first part states the topic, and the second part states the point of the essay. For instance, if you were writing about Bill Clinton and his impact on the United States, an appropriate thesis statement would be, “Bill Clinton has impacted the future of our country through his two consecutive terms as United States President.” Another example of a thesis statement is this one for the “Winning Characteristics” Scholarship essay: “During my high school career, I have exhibited several of the “Winning Characteristics,” including Communication Skills, Leadership Skills and Organization Skills, through my involvement in Student Government, National Honor Society, and a part-time job at Macy’s Department Store.” 4. Write the body. The body of your essay argues, explains or describes your topic. Each main idea that you wrote in your diagram or outline will become a separate section within the body of your essay. Each body paragraph will have the same basic structure. Begin by writing one of your main ideas as the introductory sentence. Next, write each of your supporting ideas in sentence format, but leave three or four lines in between each point to come back and give detailed examples to back up your position. Fill in these spaces with relative information that will help link smaller ideas together. 5. Write the introduction. Now that you have developed your thesis and the overall body of your essay, you must write an introduction. The introduction should attract the reader’s attention and show the focus of your essay. Begin with an attention grabber. You can use shocking information, dialogue, a story, a quote, or a simple summary of your topic. Whichever angle you choose, make sure that it ties in with your thesis statement, which will be included in the last sentence of your introduction. 6. Write the conclusion. The conclusion brings closure of the topic and sums up your overall ideas while providing a final perspective on your topic. Your conclusion should consist of three to five strong sentences. Simply review your main points and provide reinforcement of your thesis. 7. Add the finishing touches. After writing your conclusion, you might think that you have completed your essay. Wrong. Before you consider this a finished work, you must pay attention to all the small details. Check the order of your paragraphs. Your strongest points should be the first and last paragraphs within the body, with the others falling in the middle. Also, make sure that your paragraph order makes sense. If your essay is describing a process, such as how to make a great chocolate cake, make sure that your paragraphs fall in the correct order. Review the instructions for your essay, if applicable. Many teachers and scholarship forms follow different formats, and you must double check instructions to ensure that your essay is in the desired format. Finally, review what you have written. Reread your paper and check to see if it makes sense. Make sure that sentence flow is smooth and add phrases to help connect thoughts or ideas. Check your essay for grammar and spelling mistakes. Congratulations! You have just written a great essay.

C++ Programming
TutorMe
Question:

Given an input string and a pattern, check if characters in the input string follow the same order as determined by characters present in the pattern. Assume there won’t be any duplicate characters in the pattern. Examples: Input: string = "engineers rock", pattern = "er"; Output: true All 'e' in the input string are before all 'r'. Input: string = "engineers rock", pattern = "egr"; Output: false There are two 'e' after 'g' in the input string. Input: string = "engineers rock", pattern = "gsr"; Output: false There are one 'r' before 's' in the input string.

Dhawal H.
Answer:

In this approach we first assign a label (or order) to characters of pattern. The labels are assigned in increasing order. For example, the pattern “gsr” is labeled as following "g" => 1 "s" => 2 "r" => 3 It means ‘g’ will come first, then ‘s’, then ‘r’ After assigning labels to pattern characters, we iterate through string characters. While traversing, we keep track of label (or order) of last visited character. If label of current character is less than previous character, we return false. Otherwise we update last label. If all characters follow order, we return true. Below is the C++ implementation // C++ program to find if a string follows order // defined by a given pattern. #include <bits/stdc++.h> using namespace std; const int CHAR_SIZE = 256; // Returns true if characters of str follow // order defined by a given ptr. bool checkPattern(string str, string pat) { // Initialize all orders as -1 vector<int> label(CHAR_SIZE, -1); // Assign an order to pattern characters // according to their appearance in pattern int order = 1; for (int i = 0; i < pat.length() ; i++) { // give the pattern characters order label[pat[i]] = order; // increment the order order++; } // Now one by check if string characters // follow above order int last_order = -1; for (int i = 0; i < str.length(); i++) { if (label[str[i]] != -1) { // If order of this character is less // than order of previous, return false. if (label[str[i]] < last_order) return false; // Update last_order for next iteration last_order = label[str[i]]; } } // return that str followed pat return true; } // Driver code int main() { string str = "engineers rock"; string pattern = "gsr"; cout << boolalpha << checkPattern(str, pattern); return 0; }

C Programming
TutorMe
Question:

Given N-point on a 2D plane as a pair of (x, y) co-ordinates, we need to find a maximum number of a point which lies on the same line. Examples: Input : points[] = {-1, 1}, {0, 0}, {1, 1}, {2, 2}, {3, 3}, {3, 4} Output : 4 Then maximum number of point which lie on same line are 4, those point are {0, 0}, {1, 1}, {2, 2}, {3, 3}

Dhawal H.
Answer:

We can solve above problem by the following approach – For each point p, calculate its slope with other points and use a map to record how many points have the same slope, by which we can find out how many points are on the same line with p as their one point. For each point keep doing the same thing and update the maximum number of point count found so far. Some things to note in implementation are: 1) if two-points are (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) then their slope will be (y2 – y1) / (x2 – x1) which can be a double value and can cause precision problems. To get rid of the precision problems, we treat slope as a pair ((y2 – y1), (x2 – x1)) instead of ratio and reduce pair by their gcd before inserting into the map. In below code points which are vertical or repeated are treated separately. 2) If we use unordered_map in c++ or HashMap in Java for storing the slope pair, then total time complexity of solution will be O(n^2) /* C/C++ program to find maximum number of point which lie on same line */ #include <bits/stdc++.h> using namespace std; // method to find maximum colinear point int maxPointOnSameLine(vector< pair<int, int> > points) { int N = points.size(); if (N < 2) return N; int maxPoint = 0; int curMax, overlapPoints, verticalPoints; // map to store slope pair unordered_map<pair<int, int>, int> slopeMap; // looping for each point for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) { curMax = overlapPoints = verticalPoints = 0; // looping from i + 1 to ignore same pair again for (int j = i + 1; j < N; j++) { // If both point are equal then just // increase overlapPoint count if (points[i] == points[j]) overlapPoints++; // If x co-ordinate is same, then both // point are vertical to each other else if (points[i].first == points[j].first) verticalPoints++; else { int yDif = points[j].second - points[i].second; int xDif = points[j].first - points[i].first; int g = __gcd(xDif, yDif); // reducing the difference by their gcd yDif /= g; xDif /= g; // increasing the frequency of current slope // in map slopeMap[make_pair(yDif, xDif)]++; curMax = max(curMax, slopeMap[make_pair(yDif, xDif)]); } curMax = max(curMax, verticalPoints); } // updating global maximum by current point's maximum maxPoint = max(maxPoint, curMax + overlapPoints + 1); // printf("maximum colinear point which contains current // point are : %d\n", curMax + overlapPoints + 1); slopeMap.clear(); } return maxPoint; } // Driver code int main() { const int N = 6; int arr[N][2] = {{-1, 1}, {0, 0}, {1, 1}, {2, 2}, {3, 3}, {3, 4}}; vector< pair<int, int> > points; for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) points.push_back(make_pair(arr[i][0], arr[i][1])); cout << maxPointOnSameLine(points) << endl; return 0; }

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