Tutor profile: Keely C.
Why should I care about chemistry?
Imagine if I told you that every single thing in the world--every item you had ever touched, every possible thing you could ever make--were made of a finite number of building blocks: puzzle pieces with specific properties that determined specific ways they can be connected together to make complex materials. Imagine that there are less than 100 such puzzle pieces in common use, and that only about 20 of them account for most of our bodies. This isn't just a thought experiment--it's true. The puzzle pieces are chemical elements. If you can understand the basics of chemistry, you can understand the very materials that make up the universe.
How are mitochondria involved in apoptosis?
Apoptosis is a process in multicellular organisms that allows a cell to kill itself--preprogrammed cell death. This may happen if a cell has irreparable damage to its DNA, or is infected by a virus, and it is done to protect the organism as a whole. The actual process of killing the cell in apoptosis is carried out by capsases--enzymes that shred the components of the cell, particularly proteins, into pieces. However, capsase activation is the end step in a long pathway of signals that lead to apoptosis. One possible pathway that can trigger capsase activation, called the intrinsic pathway, heavily features mitochondria. In this pathway, cell stress signals such as nutrient deprivation or excess calcium signalling trigger the activation of apoptotic proteins that target the mitochonrial membrane, producing pores in its surface. This causes proteins inside the mitochonria to leak into the cytoplasm. Mitochondria are essential for cell survival, so mitochondrial proteins in the cytoplasm is a major red flag. In fact, some components of the mitochondria, such as cytochrome C, directly activate capsases involved in apoptosis when they are present in the cytoplasm.
I want to build a rectangular room with a width of 12 feet and an area of 192 feet. How would I set up an algebra equation to solve for the width of the room?
To solve this problem, we would need to know the equation for the area of a rectangle: [length]* [width] = [area] Then we would put in the information we know: *[width] =  We could then plug in the variable X for our unknown information: 12x=192
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