What was the status of the Supreme Court in early American history?
As the creator of judicial review, John Marshall feared the vulnerability of this power because of it was not written in Constitution, so he never went against either the president or the Congress after Marbury v. Madison (1803) and preferred negotiation way with them with only one exception. Thus, he remained the power of judicial review safely in the Supreme Court and changed the inactive status of the original Supreme Court to a real governmental branch that could interpret the Constitution and make judgments on legislation. In the case of McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), the state of Maryland wanted to charge taxes for all branches of the Second Bank of United States in the state due to the economic depression. The Supreme Court dismissed the right for states to tax any national entity. However, the Constitution does not give the right to Congress to found national banks. To make the judgment convictive, the Supreme Court released implied power for Congress. The court properly used its privilege of interpreting the Constitution and strengthened the power of national government. As a part of the Checks and Balances system, the Supreme Court also has the responsibility to oversee the legislative. In the case Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), the Supreme Court ruled that Congress had no right to restrict slavery and the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional, which forced Congress to allow slavery in every state. Even though the decision did not last, it showed the ability of the court to intervene in significant political events. The court was powerless when president Andrew Jackson refused to enforce the Court’s decision to protecting Cherokee sovereignty, but judges still had chance to bring up their opinions to public, which unlike the Supreme Court at the very beginning of U.S., the court were not even involved in political disputes. Thus, in early America history (before Civil War), which was also the early stage of the Judicial branch, the Supreme Court maintained the judicial review created by John Marshall, and it started actively engaged in making judgment in government legislation and thus played an important role in U.S..
What does this following saying means:"相濡以沫，不如相忘于江湖”
The first half means that when the river dries up, fishes will use their saliva to support each other, which indicate that people help each other in difficulties no matter how vulnerable they are. The second half means that people should not always miss the memory in the past, instead, they should be able to move on and embrace a new world.
What are the fundamentals of consumer choice?
1. Limited income necessitates choice 2. Consumer make decisions purposefully 3. Substitutions 4. Knowledge of past experiences 5. Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility