Tutor profile: Javor K.
Who are Indo-Europeans and where are Indo-European languages spoken?
Indo-Europeans are a group of nations formed from the Proto-Indo-Europeans that are believed to have originated during the Neolithic in Eastern Europe just north of the Caucasus mountains. From there they spread to the Central and Western Europe, Anatolia, Middle East and Central Asia. Traditionaly Indo-Europenas occupy almost entire Europe, Central Asia, Siberia and parts of the Middle East and South Asia, but today due to colonialism they also live in Americas, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Indo-European languages form largest language family in the world. Today almost half of the world population speaks Indo-European languages with most well known being English, Spanish, Hindi, Russian, French, German, Italian and Persian. Most prominent Indo-European language groups are Slavic (or Balto-Slavic by some sources), Romance, Germanic and Indo-Iranian. There are also smaller groups and individual languages that are part of Indo-European language family such as Celtic, Greek, Armenian and Albanian. Slavic languages are divided into three groups: Eastern, Western and Southern and they are widespread in Eastern Europe and Siberia, Central Europe and Balkans respectively, Russian (eastern) is also spoken by Russian minorities in Central Asia. Romance languages are spoken in Southern, Southeastern and Western Europe, but also in Southern and Central Americas where they were brought by Spanish and Portuguese conquests and Africa and Canada where they were introduced by French colonialism. Germanic languages are prominent in Central and Northern Europe but also in North America, Australia, Africa and other places that were once part of British Empire. Indo-Iranian group is as its name suggest spoken in Iran and India, but also countries that are between them and in Turkey, Iraq and Syria where it is spoken by Kurds. Other smaller groups and languages are located in Europe.
Subject: Human Geography
Can you explain place (distribution) as part of the marketing mix?
The distribution is related to logistics and the sales of products and determines the manner in which products come from a business entity to the consumers. Distribution determines how, when and where the product will be transported, stored and sold. It also monitors flow of information that takes place parallel to the movement of the products.Its role is to place a product at the market in the right quantity, at the right location, in the right time at the minimum cost. Type of distribution depends on the characteristics of the product, influence of the companies in the value chain, market characteristics, the characteristics of the production program and sales volumes. There are several ways of implementing distribution. For example there are "push" and “pull”types. "Push" distribution seeks to bring products to final consumers (eg. retail), while "pull" type attracts customer to the product (eg.tourism) The second way is dependent on the sales of the product, it can be direct or indirect. In direct sales distribution channel consists only of an business entity and a consumer. Indirect sales contains complex distribution channels. The indirect distribution channel consists of not only businesses and consumers, but also agents, wholesalers and retailers. The value chain consists of all participants in the distribution process. Depending on the type of product distribution can also be: extensive, selective and exclusive. Digital technologies and the internet have become one of the most important tools in sales and distribution. Their speed, simplicity and low costs allow business entities distribution of digital products to almost unlimited number of potential customers.
Subject: Agricultural Economics
How is agriculture connected to industry and national economy in general?
Agriculture as a branch of material production is linked to many branches of industry and the overall economy. That condition is incredibly complex, but I will try to explain it in an understandable way. First of all agriculture is a part of primary sector of economy which means that it makes direct use of natural resources. Some of the agricultural products such as fruits and vegetables can be placed directly on the market but most of them can't be consumed or used by humans in their raw state. With that in mind, we can conclude that agriculture serves as a source of raw materials for the processing industry. Most prominent industry that uses agricultural production as source of raw materials is of course food industry, but we shouldn't forget tobacco, leather processing and textile industries either. An increase in the global population created the demand for ever greater quantities of food. In order to meet this demand advanced agrotechnical and agrochemical systems were implemented in agricultural production. That transformed agriculture from exclusively source of food and raw materials into market for engineering and chemical industries. Engineering industry offers tractors, combines and other machinery, while chemical industry meets the demand for fertilizers, pesticides and food additives and medications for animals. In the national economy Agriculture has the primary goal of meeting population’s food requirements, but it also has other functions. Some of those additional functions are providing jobs and income for part of the population, participation in the creation of GDP,foreign trade and the aforementioned connection with the processing industry. General trends in agriculture in relation to development of the nation’s economy show that in more developed economies agriculture contributes less to a national GDP, requires less workforce and uses more agrotechnical and agrochemical means of production. However productivity per capita is increasing.
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