Tutor profile: Ross R.
Subject: World History
What is the importance of Islam to South Asian history?
Islam's importance to South Asian history is twofold. In the medieval and early modern periods, it created a legitimate power on the continent. Islam paved the way for early rulers like Mahmud of Ghazni to exact raids on India. It also created powerful rulers in the form of the Ghorids and Delhi sultans, who ruled with a more unified Islam over fragmented Hindu kings. And the Mughals, the most powerful Indian rulers since Ashoka, were given power through Islam, expanding their rule from the Punjab to Bengal and spreading their economic reforms (the zamindari and mansabadari system) as well as artworks like the Taj Mahal and Fatehpur Sikri. In the modern period, Islam created a direct challenge to a unified South Asian state. The British first realized this when they gave Muslims separate electorates under the Morley-Minto reforms, allowing them to form political bodies separate from Hindus. And Muslims wanting increased power led to the partition of South Asia into India and Pakistan, causing the deaths of millions and tense relations that still exist until this day.
Subject: US History
Was the United States a colonial power?
Though before the Mexican-American War, the United States can be seen as a non-colonial power (the Monroe Doctrine was set up to protect the sovereignty of Latin American nations), after the war, the United States can be seen as a colonial power for a myriad of reasons. Manifest destiny was an important factor in the justification for the Mexican-American War, and as the Mexican Cession was gained from the war, the war was in nature expansionist. Too was the Spanish-American War a colonial war, as the United States administered the Philippines until the 1940s and did not allow for previously promised Filipino sovereignty. And recent American interventionism, such as in Chile or Vietnam, suggests they are too a colonial power, as the American government's official policy of containing communism suggests they want to extend their influence outside the borders of their own nation.
Subject: East Asian History
How did colonialism similarly affect the dual regions of Indochina and Indonesia?
French colonialism in Indochina and Dutch colonialism in Indonesia affected each region similarly in that they brought about widespread oppression and gave rise to revolt and mass political movements. Policies in Indochina led to mass landlessness. Additionally, workers on rubber plantations were mistreated, and coal workers were guaranteed little to no safety. In Indonesia, the Cultivation System forced workers to provide for the Dutch government, and mass taxation led to mass landlessness as well. Forced corvee labor was too common, and spread systems of oppression. Revolt and mass politics spread in both regions as a response to this. In Indochina, the Nge Anh and Ha Tinh revolts occurred in the early 1930s, and the Indochinese Communist Party gained a foothold in the country due to widespread peasant discontent. In Indonesia, both Sukarno's Nationalist Party and the Indonesian Communist Party rose up alongside mass Islamic movements (Sarekat Islam) as a response to colonial rule, after years of revolt to colonial rule, specifically in regions such as Aceh, where the Dutch fought bloody wars.
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