# Tutor profile: Nicole W.

## Questions

### Subject: Writing

Provide an essay sample that you have written.

My sample writing piece comes from an essay I wrote during my undergraduate degree. More specifically, this essay was written for an intensive writing course in Ethics. My essay includes a smooth transition from the introduction to the body paragraphs and conclusion. Included in my essay are topic sentences, examples, explanations, transition words and analysis. Here is a sample of my essay: Virtue Ethics vs. Deontology Both virtue ethics and deontology, or duty ethics, are normative-based theories surrounding the study of philosophy; however, they differ in several ways. Whereas duty ethics focuses on the duties and responsibilities humans have as moral agents, virtue ethics focuses on performing actions based on benevolence and good-willed thinking as the driving motivational factors. Whereas deontology relies on human rationality to determine ethical actions, virtue ethics simply focuses on the nature of the person’s action; in other words, whether their actions strengthen a virtue or whether they strengthen a vice. Essentially, actions are good when they support a virtue; on the other hand, they are inappropriate if they support a vice. Therefore, because virtue ethics does not focus on any other method of defining moral actions, such as consequences or duties, it would not be considered a consequentialist or deontological theory. Unlike consequentialism and deontology, virtue ethics responds to the question, “How should I respond?” in everyday situations. Instead of relying on other motivational factors, a truly virtuous, ethical person will perform actions that are innately motivated and whole heartedly good-willed. For example, if there was an elderly person who needed help crossing a busy street, there are several reasons why a bystander may choose to help. In the eyes of egoism, a bystander would help because it makes him or her look good and he or she may receive praise or a reward of some kind. According to a consequentialist, a bystander would help because it increases overall goodness in the world— contributing to everyone’s wellbeing. On the other hand, a virtue ethics theorist would propose that the bystander helped the elderly person due to the strong motivational factor of virtue within itself. Whereas the other theories like egoism and deontology have different motivational factors, virtue ethics relies on the strengthening or weakening of a virtue as the determination of moral actions. Therefore, virtue ethics should be defined as its own form of moral actions that need not rely on the factors of consequence, duty, or other motivational variables.

### Subject: Basic Math

Explain how one would complete addition and subtraction problems when encountering fractions.

Fractions can be difficult to add and subtract because they are not whole numbers. However, with practice, fractions can be easily computed and understood. In order to add and subtract fractions, one must find a least common denominator (LCD), rewrite the fraction, and then solve. For example, if the problem asks to solve (1/2) + (1/5), the student would first need to find the LCD. To find the LCD, the student should think of all the multiples of (2) and (5) and stop when they find one that matches. The student should start finding multiples of the larger number first; in this case, it would be (5). Multiples of 5 include: 5, 10, and 15. Next, find multiples of the other denominator (2). Multiples of 2 include: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10. We see that both (5) and (2) include a multiple of (10), so the number (10) would be our LCD. Now that we have our LCD, we need to re-write the fractions. To change (1/2) so that we have a LCD of 10, we would need to multiply the numerator and denominator by 5, so our new fraction would be (5/10). In order to change (1/5) so that we have a LCD of 10, we would need to multiply the numerator and denominator by 2, so our new fraction would be (2/10). Now that we have rewritten our fractions, (1/2 becomes 5/10) and (1/5 becomes 2/10), we can finally add and subtract our fractions. Simply take the numerator of our first rewritten fraction (5) and add it to the numerator of our second rewritten fraction (2) to get a sum of (7), which becomes the numerator of our final answer. We do not need to change the denominator for our final answer, so (5/10) + (2/10) gets us a final answer of (7/10). If we wanted to subtract our fractions, we would complete the same steps as addition, except subtract instead of add. We would subtract our numerators (5) - (2) and get (3), which becomes the numerator of our final answer. We would again keep the same denominator. So, (5/10) - (2/10) gives us a final answer of (3/10).

### Subject: Psychology

How can the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders) be used to classify children who display atypical behavior?

As stated by the American Psychiatric Association, a child must display certain symptoms listed in the DSM V, or the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, to be classified with a disorder or mental illness. For example, the DSM lists very specific criteria for a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder, or ASD. According to the DSM V, symptoms of ASD may be classified under two major domains: social communication and restricted and repetitive behaviors. The DSM classifies the first domain as deficits in social communication across multiple contexts, such as emotional reciprocity, nonverbal communication, and understanding relationships. In terms of the second domain, an individual must display restrictive and repetitive behaviors to be classified with Autism Spectrum Disorder. For example, a child who frequently repeats others' words (echolalia) may be diagnosed with ASD.

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